Referral Banners

Tuesday, January 6, 2015

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

'Imaginary Meal' Tricks Body Into Losing Weight

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:27 AM PST

A more effective diet pill has been developed by scientists. Unlike most diet pills on the market, this new pill, called fexaramine, doesn't dissolve into the blood like appetite suppressants or caffeine-based diet drugs, but remains in the intestines, causing fewer side effects, like an "imaginary meal," the researchers explain.

Acoustic levitation made simple

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:25 AM PST

Scientists have developed a new levitation device that can hover a tiny object with more control than any instrument that has come before.

Why is Greenland covered in ice?

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:25 AM PST

The ice on Greenland could only form due to processes in the deep Earth interior. Scientists now explain why the conditions for the glaciation of Greenland developed only so recently on a geological time scale.

Human enzyme (CD 39) targets Achilles heel of sepsis

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:25 AM PST

Scientists use mice to show that a human membrane-bound enzyme called CD39, which can clear the dangerous buildup of adenosine triphosphate from the bloodstream, significantly improves survival of mice in sepsis. "Finding a more effective treatment for sepsis would be a major step forward," said one researcher, "since far too many people still die from overwhelming microbial infection. If CD 39 proves to be as critical a factor in humans as in mice, this is a major discovery."

Byproducts from bacteria awaken dormant T-cells, HIV viruses

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:25 AM PST

Dental and medical researchers have discovered that byproducts of bacteria in gum disease, called metabolic small chain fatty acid, can work together to wake up HIV in dormant T-cells and cause the virus to replicate. Their findings help explain why people with the HIV -infections and periodontal disease have higher levels of the virus in their saliva than HIV patients with healthy gums.

Rare rock with 30,000 diamonds examined

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Diamonds are beautiful and enigmatic. Though chemical reactions that create the highly coveted sparkles still remain a mystery, an American professor is studying a rare rock covered in diamonds that may hold clues to the gem's origins.

Disparities seen in immigrant application results

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Immigrants to the US with job offers often apply for work authorization. But immigrants from Latin America are less likely to have those requests granted than are immigrants from other regions, according to a new study that also suggests a potential remedy for this problem, by finding that this regional disparity does not exist when officials examine cases in greater detail.

Blood test for prostate cancer investigated

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

A method for detecting 'cell-free' tumor DNA in the bloodstream has been developed by scientists who believe that the technique will be transformative in providing improved cancer diagnostics that can both predict treatment outcomes and monitor patient responses to therapy.

Cancer prevention guidelines may lower risk of obesity-linked cancers

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Low alcohol consumption and a plant-based diet, both healthy habits aligning with current cancer prevention guidelines, are associated with reducing the risk of obesity-related cancers, a study shows. "Our research aims to clarify associations between diet and physical activity in relation to cancer to encourage at-risk individuals to make lifestyle modifications that may reduce their risk of certain cancers," said the study's lead author.

Genetic factors contribute to insomnia in children, teens, twin study suggests

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Insomnia in childhood and adolescence is partially explained by genetic factors, a new study of twins suggests. "Insomnia in youth is moderately related to genetic factors, but the specific genetic factors may change with age," said a study author. "We were most surprised by the fact that the genetic factors were not stable over time, so the influence of genes depends on the developmental stage of the child."

Chronic high blood pressure increases risk of glaucoma, study shows

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Chronic (long-term) hypertension increases a person's susceptibility to glaucoma, a new study has found. These results suggest that doctors should consider a patient's blood pressure levels in managing the potentially blinding eye disorder.

Study identifies risk factors linking low birthweight to diabetes

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

Low birth weight predicts an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood, s new study of more than 3,000 women confirms. It also identifies which intermediating biomarkers appear to be the best predictors. The research could help physicians better assess patient risk.

New research dishes the dirt on the demise of a civilization

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 08:24 AM PST

It's the dirt that's resulting in a new look at farming in the Dark Age, scientists report. The village of Nichoria in Messenia was located near the palace of Pylos during the Greek Bronze Age, when Greece was considered a Superpower of the Mediterranean. The region thrived on its trade and economic stability, culture, and art and architecture, including great monuments, palaces and writings. The collapse of the Bronze Age (beginning around 1200 BC), including the abandonment of cities and the destruction of palaces, is known as the Dark Age.

New technology focuses diffuse light inside living tissue

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 07:15 AM PST

For the first time, a new technique that focuses diffuse light inside a dynamic scattering medium containing living tissue has been revealed by researchers. In addition, they have improved the speed of optical focusing deep inside tissue by two orders of magnitude. This improvement in speed is an important step toward noninvasive optical imaging in deep tissue and photodynamic therapy.

Underwater drones map ice algae in Antarctica

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 07:14 AM PST

New robot technology leads Antarctic exploration into a new epoch. It is now possible to study the underside of sea ice across large distances and explore a world previously restricted to specially trained divers only.

Sensor demonstrates lack of space in living cells

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 07:14 AM PST

Proteins and other bio-molecules are often analyzed exclusively in aqueous solutions in test tubes. But it is uncertain if these experimental studies can be transferred to the densely-packed cellular environment. Researchers have developed a novel method that can be used to analyze the effects of the lack of space in living cells with the aid of a microscope for the first time. They designed a sensor that changes color depending on how confined the space in the cell is.

Atoms queue up for quantum computer networks

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 07:14 AM PST

In order to develop future quantum computer networks, it is necessary to hold a known number of atoms and read them without them disappearing. To do this, researchers have developed a method with a trap that captures the atoms along an ultra-thin glass fiber, where the atoms can be controlled.

The bowhead whale lives over 200 years. Can its genes tell us why?

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 07:14 AM PST

A whale that can live over 200 years with little evidence of age-related disease may provide untapped insights into how to live a long and healthy life. Researchers present in a new report the complete bowhead whale genome and identify key differences compared to other mammals. Alterations in bowhead genes related to cell division, DNA repair, cancer, and aging may have helped increase its longevity and cancer resistance.

Scientists tap tree genomes to discover adaptation strategies

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 06:29 AM PST

A team of scientists has sequenced whole genomes from 544 unrelated trees of the same species. The study identified gene sequences from Populus trichocarpa, to understand how trees adapt to different climates.

Geographic information helps provide public health intelligence at mass gatherings

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 06:28 AM PST

The potential for an existing infection to spread at mass events should not be underestimated, researchers say. Infectious diseases are one of the many health issues that worry the organizers of mass gatherings, such as the Hajj and the World Cup. Tools of the trade can help event organizers to better plan, monitor and respond timely to such eventualities, they add.

New analyses of Martian chemical maps suggest water bound to sulfates in soil

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 06:27 AM PST

A spatial association between the presence of sulfur and hydrogen found in Martian soil has been proposed by scientists. The team suggests that further observations by the Curiosity rover in Gale Crater could move forward models of aqueous processes on Mars. For example, recent analyses of "Rocknest" soil samples suggest complementary modes of soil hydration in the Gale Crater area.

Desires of Microscopic Shrimp Illuminate Evolutionary Theory

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:19 AM PST

New research on bioluminescent ostracods shows how tiny crustaceans are helping scientists to understand evolution by sexual selection. These millimeter-sized, shrimp-like animals can be found all across the globe, in both marine and freshwater environments. They've even been found living in leaf litter in tropical rainforests. There are an estimated 20,000 species of ostracods, but only about 200 that produce bioluminescence.

Braving the cold to understand what makes squirrels tick

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:19 AM PST

The circadian clock of arctic ground squirrels works differently during the cold of hibernation, new research shows. Many mammal species in colder climates spend the winter months in torpor, commonly known as hibernation. During this period of torpor, many bodily functions are suppressed to conserve energy, including the daily clock known as the circadian clock. A new study asks the question, do circadian clocks persist throughout torpor?

Ebola outbreak offers lessons, reminders for critical care clinicians

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:19 AM PST

Outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as Ebola in West Africa, offer insight for how healthcare professionals can respond more effectively to current and future challenges, experts say.

New hope for Borneo's orangutans despite threats of future climate change, deforestation

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:18 AM PST

A new study has attempted to identify new hope for Borneo's orangutans. 'Despite some pessimistic outcomes, we remain positive about the fate of the orangutan. Our work demonstrates that continued efforts to halt deforestation could mediate some orangutan habitat loss, and this is particularly important in the southern parts of Borneo.'

Global bird conservation could be four times more cost-effective

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:18 AM PST

Targeting conservation efforts to safeguard biodiversity, rather than focusing on charismatic species, could make current spending on threatened birds four times more effective, a new study has shown.

How vitamin C helps plants beat the sun

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:18 AM PST

While vitamin C in plant chloroplasts is known to help prevent a reduction in growth that plants experience when exposed to excessive light -- a phenomenon called photoinhibition -- how it gets into chloroplasts to begin with has been a mystery. Now, a team of researchers has identified PHT4;4 as the transport protein that allows vitamin C to enter chloroplasts. The work shows that PHT4;4 can transport vitamin C and that it is located in the envelope membranes of chloroplasts.

Women, quitting smoking for New Years? Time it with your period!

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:18 AM PST

The menstrual cycle appears to have an effect on nicotine cravings, according to a new study. "Our data reveal that incontrollable urges to smoke are stronger at the beginning of the follicular phase that begins after menstruation. Hormonal decreases of estrogen and progesterone possibly deepen the withdrawal syndrome and increase activity of neural circuits associated with craving," an investigator said, suggesting that it could therefore be easier for women to overcome abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms during the mid-luteal phrase, i.e. after ovulation, when their levels of estrogen and progesterone are elevated.

Health-promoting Nordic diet reduces inflammatory gene activity in adipose tissue

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:18 AM PST

A Nordic study has discovered that the health-promoting Nordic diet reduces the expression of inflammation-associated genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue. In overweight persons, the expression of these genes reduced without weight loss. To a certain extent, the adverse health effects of overweight are believed to be caused by an inflammatory state in adipose tissue.

Rotating night shift work can be hazardous to your health

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:17 AM PST

Night shift work has been consistently associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. In 2007 the World Health Organization classified night shift work as a probable carcinogen due to circadian disruption. In a new study, researchers found that women working rotating night shifts for five or more years appeared to have a modest increase in all-cause and CVD mortality and those working 15 or more years of rotating night shift work appeared to have a modest increase in lung cancer mortality. These results add to prior evidence of a potentially detrimental effect of rotating night shift work on health and longevity.

Fructose more toxic than table sugar in mice

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 05:05 AM PST

When biologists fed mice sugar in doses proportional to what many people eat, the fructose-glucose mixture found in high-fructose corn syrup was more toxic than sucrose or table sugar, reducing both the reproduction and lifespan of female rodents.

Why do only some people with hereditary heart disease experience symptoms?

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:24 PM PST

In addition to gene mutations, environmental stress plays a key role in the development of the heart disease hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, researchers have found for the first time. As many as 500,000 people in the United States have a heritable and potentially fatal heart disease called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The disease can cause irregular heartbeats, heart valve problems, heart failure and, in rare cases, sudden cardiac death in young people. But some people who carry gene mutations that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy never experience symptoms.

Liver cirrhosis more common than previously thought, study finds

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:24 PM PST

Cirrhosis of the liver is more common than previously thought, affecting more than 633,000 adults yearly. And surprisingly, 69 percent of the adults identified as possibly having cirrhosis may not know they have this disease, researchers report.

Baleen hormones increase understanding of bowhead whale reproduction

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:24 PM PST

Wild animals provide a unique challenge for physiologists because they are difficult to capture and monitor in their natural habitats. As a result, scientists are increasingly learning about organisms by extracting steroid hormones out of keratinized tissues. This includes hormones such as testosterone, progesterone, and cortisol that are deposited in feathers, human hair, and reptile claws as these tissues grow. A onetime capture and removal of a single sample can provide a scientist with a record of fluctuating amounts of hormone in the body over the growth period of the collected sample. This technique provides a wealth of information about an animal, including its reproductive history. Development of this method is now underway to monitor the reproduction of one of the largest organisms on earth, the bowhead whale.

Mystery of funky 'disco' clam's flashing revealed

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:24 PM PST

The disco clam is an active, filter-feeding mollusk that lives in crevices or small caves in Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Their flashing is so bright that it had been thought to be the result of bioluminescence, the production of light within the tissue. However, flashes of light from an unusual clam help it to fend off predators and perhaps to attract prey, new research shows.

Being a couch potato could have led to marital bliss in mantis shrimps

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:24 PM PST

Being monogamous is an advantage for mantis shrimp, helping them to avoid predators, new research shows. A study shows that social monogamy, where one lives and shares resources with a single partner for an extended period of time, is rare in nature. So why did it evolve at all?

Technology to recycle all type of plastics without using water

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:23 PM PST

Traditionally, plastic recycling processes involve using a lot of water. In order to avoid this waste, researchers have developed a new green technology that doesn't require liquids, and has the capacity to process materials such as styrofoam, polystyrene and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) using the same type of customizable machinery.

Production of 500 daily litres of bioethanol from food waste

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:23 PM PST

From waste generated in the processing of cereals, scientists have produced bioenergy in the form of ethanol, and designed a prototype plant that generates 500 litres of bioethanol a day.

3D reconstruction software for antique auto parts and prehispanic objects

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:23 PM PST

A program has been developed that can produce digital 3D images from the projection and digitization of binary data. This allows three-dimensional reconstruction of various objects in order to reproduce parts of classic  automobiles, prehispanic antiques, as well as serving as a tool for face recognition.

Hidden details, objects in eighteenth century altarpiece found

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:23 PM PST

Researchers have unveiled two paintings in the side altar of the parish of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception in Purisima del Rincon, Guanajuato in center Mexico, by artist Hermenegildo Bustos, invisible to the naked eye.

Bamboo bike recharges mobile devices, external batteries by peddling

Posted: 04 Jan 2015 12:23 PM PST

A bamboo bicycle that transforms the kinetic energy generated by pedaling into a source of electricity has been developed by researchers. The bike has the ability to simultaneously recharge mobile devices, smartphone's external battery and a navigation dashboard located on the handlebars which measures the distance and time, and also has Bluetooth connection.

No comments: