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Thursday, December 4, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Brain injury researchers find retrieval practice improves memory in youth with tbi

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 01:11 PM PST

Brain injury researchers have identified retrieval practice as a useful strategy for improving memory among children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury, researchers have found. Difficulties with memory and learning are common after TBI in childhood. To improve academic achievement and long-term outcomes such as employment, effective neurorehabilitative strategies need to be identified, they note.

How red wine prevents cancer

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 01:11 PM PST

'Alcohol damages cells and resveratrol kills damaged cells,' says a scientist who studied red wine and its relationship to preventing cancer. "Alcohol bombards your genes. Your body has ways to repair this damage, but with enough alcohol eventually some damage isn't fixed. That's why excessive alcohol use is a factor in head and neck cancer. Now, resveratrol challenges these cells -- the ones with unrepaired DNA damage are killed, so they can't go on to cause cancer. Alcohol damages cells and resveratrol kills damaged cells," he says.

Toxin from tobacco smoke could increase pain in spinal cord injury

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 01:11 PM PST

A neurotoxin called acrolein found in tobacco smoke that is thought to increase pain in people with spinal cord injury has now been shown to accumulate in mice exposed to the equivalent of 12 cigarettes daily over a short time period.

New Model of Media Consumption in 'Age of Interruption'

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 12:18 PM PST

A study focuses on the fact that the average American receives more than 15 hours a day of digital media, the public's attention span for media and the ways the media is keeping us engaged.

Check less to reduce email stress

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 11:26 AM PST

Is your inbox burning you out? Then take heart -- research suggests that easing up on email checking can help reduce psychological stress. Some of the study's 124 adults -- including students, financial analysts medical professionals and others -- were instructed to limit checking email to three times daily for a week. Others were told to check email as often as they could (which turned out to be about the same number of times that they normally checked their email prior to the study).

Brain network detected that gives humans superior reasoning skills

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 11:26 AM PST

When it comes to getting out of a tricky situation, we humans have an evolutionary edge over other primates. Scientists have found mounting brain evidence that helps explain how humans have excelled at 'relational reasoning,' a cognitive skill in which we discern patterns and relationships to make sense of seemingly unrelated information.

Atomic-level view provides new insight into translation of touch into nerve signals

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 11:25 AM PST

The sensation of touch starts as mechanical force that is transformed into an electrical signal. Tiny channels in neurons help formulate that signal, but scientists know little of the details of how these channels work. New research has revealed that one such channel in humans uses a never-before-seen mechanism.

Small drains mean big problems at 'baby beaches'

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 09:53 AM PST

High fecal counts frequently detected at so-called 'baby beaches' may not be diaper-related. Researchers found that during summer months, small drainpipes emptying into enclosed ocean bays have a disproportionate impact on calmer waters.

Mapping human disease: 'Not all pathogens are everywhere'

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 09:53 AM PST

For the first time, researchers have mapped human disease-causing pathogens, dividing the world into a number of regions where similar diseases occur. The findings show that the world can be separated into seven regions for vectored human diseases -- diseases that are spread by pests, like mosquito-borne malaria -- and five regions for non-vectored diseases, like cholera.

People in unhappy places are depressed more than a week a month

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 09:53 AM PST

People in the country's unhappiest communities spend about a quarter of the month so far down in the dumps that it can harm their productivity, according to economists.

Glass houses: Your personality helps predict your real estate choices

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 09:51 AM PST

According to a new study, personality traits are strong indicators of real-estate decisions. The study finds a correlation between personality and individual real estate choices, and a follow-up study by the same team finds an identical link between local personality types in America and statewide real estate trends.

Clothes that can monitor, transmit biomedical info developed

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 09:51 AM PST

Smart textiles are able to monitor and transmit wearers' biomedical information via wireless or cellular networks, developers report. This technological breakthrough clears a path for a host of new developments for people suffering from chronic diseases, elderly people living alone, and even firemen and police officers.

Are There Safe, Effective Treatments for Hereditary Angioedema in Children?

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 09:50 AM PST

Hereditary angioedema (HAE), a rare genetic disease that causes recurrent swelling under the skin and of the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract and upper airway, usually first appears before 20 years of age. A comprehensive review of the therapies currently available to treat HAE in adults shows that some of these treatments are also safe and effective for use in older children and adolescents.

New molecules to burst malaria's bubble

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 08:12 AM PST

Scientists have released details of a raft of new chemicals with potent anti-malarial properties which could open the way to new drugs to fight malaria. Over 200 million people contract malaria each year, and the parasite that causes the disease has become resistant to most of the drugs currently available. The papers show the malaria parasite has real Achilles heel, and we now have range of new ways to attack it.

Novel approach to treating asthma: Neutralize the trigger

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 08:11 AM PST

Current asthma treatments can alleviate wheezing, coughing and other symptoms felt by millions of Americans every year, but they don't get to the root cause of the condition. Now, for the first time, scientists are reporting a new approach to defeating asthma by targeting the trigger -- the allergen -- before it can spark an attack.

People conceived during Dutch famine have altered regulation of growth genes

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 08:09 AM PST

Individuals conceived in the severe Dutch Famine may have adjusted to this horrendous period of World War II by making adaptations to how active their DNA is. Genes involved in growth and development were differentially regulated, according to researchers. Extensive research on the DNA of these children shows that the regulatory systems of their growth genes were altered, which may also explain why they may be at higher risk for metabolic disease in later life.

Taming neural excitations: Pulses might one day lead to controlling harmful signals such as those in strokes

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 07:01 AM PST

What do lasers, neural networks, and spreading epidemics have in common? They share a most basic feature whereby an initial pulse can propagate through a medium - be it physical, biological or socio-economic, respectively. The challenge is to gain a better understanding - and eventually control - of such systems, allowing them to be applied, for instance to real neural systems. This is the objective of a new theoretical study.

Chemo effect on brain cells pinpointed; potential link to autism

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 07:00 AM PST

Scientists discovered how the chemo drug topotecan affects individual neurons to potentially cause "chemo fog." A similar long-term affect in the developing brain could trigger autism. "There's still a question in the cancer field about the degree to which some chemotherapies get into the brain," said a co-senior author of the paper. "But in our experiments, we show that if they do get in, they can have a dramatic effect on synaptic function. We think drug developers should be aware of this when testing their next generation of topoisomerase inhibitors."

Movements Help Measure Child Sleep Problems

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 07:00 AM PST

Light has been shed on the complexities of child sleep, and could lead to improved diagnosis of children with sleep-related breathing problems. "Quality sleep is extremely important for children, especially at critical times of development. It can impact on the health of the brain and plays a key role in language development, for example. Poor quality sleep can result in reduced IQ, school performance and can impact overall quality of life," says the lead author.

Macho stereotypes put off men as well as women

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:43 AM PST

Some men are being driven away from macho occupations like surgery and the Royal Marines because they don't feel that they are 'man enough', according to new research.

Growing cooperation: First the carrot, then the stick

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:43 AM PST

To encourage cooperation in groups, a combination of rewards and penalties is best, according to a new study.

Diagnosis targets in primary care are misleading, unethical, UK experts say

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:42 AM PST

Last month, there was public outcry at the news that GPs in England would be paid £55 for each case of dementia diagnosed. Now come targets for six other conditions, including diabetes coronary heart disease, asthma and depression, writes an English GP. "But the data on which they are based are flawed, and the approach incentivises potentially harmful overdiagnosis," he argues.

Overweight and obesity in pregnancy linked to greater risk of infant death

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:42 AM PST

Overweight and obesity in early pregnancy are associated with increased risks of infant mortality, with the greatest risks seen among severely obese mothers, finds a study.

Mediterranean diet linked to longer life

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:42 AM PST

Eating a Mediterranean diet might help extend your lifespan, suggests a study. The diet appears to be associated with longer telomere length -- an established marker of slower aging.

Brain study uncovers new clues on how cues may affect memory

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:40 AM PST

The brain activity prior to seeing an item is related to how well it is later remembered, a new study shows. Moreover, researchers also found that the activity in different areas of the brain was unexpectedly related to how the information was remembered.

Computer model enables design of complex DNA shapes

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:40 AM PST

Biological engineers have created a new computer model that allows them to design the most complex three-dimensional DNA shapes ever produced, including rings, bowls, and geometric structures such as icosahedrons that resemble viral particles.

Many chest X-rays in children are unnecessary

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:40 AM PST

Some children are receiving chest X-rays that may be unnecessary and offer no clinical benefit to the patient, according to a new study. "Chest X-rays can be a valuable exam when ordered for the correct indications," said a radiologist. "However, there are several indications where pediatric chest X-rays offer no benefit and likely should not be performed to decrease radiation dose and cost."

Substantial improvement in England, Wales cancer survival over 40 years overshadowed by low survival for brain, stomach, lung, oesophageal, and pancreatic cancers

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:39 AM PST

However, although some cancers have a good prognosis, the outlook for others remains extremely poor. For example, while 98% of men with testicular cancer survive from their cancer for at least a decade after diagnosis, up from 69% 40 years ago, just 1% of pancreatic cancer patients diagnosed today are expected to survive from their cancer 10 years.

Colorful nano-guides to the liver

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:39 AM PST

Highly specific nanoparticles have been produced by scientists. Depending on the bound dye the particles are guided to the liver or to the kidney and deliver their payload of active ingredients directly to the targeted tissue. Moreover, the dyes enable the tracking of the transport processes by intravital microscopy or, in a non-invasive way, by multi spectral optoacoustic tomography. The reduction of cholesterol production induced by siRNA served as the proof-of-principle for the developed method.

Does your boss find you proactive…or pushy?

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:38 AM PST

Those wishing to prove themselves as "doers" must not only be hands-on and demonstrate proactive behavior but also have social acumen and a feel for favorable opportunities. Those who rely on personal initiative alone will quickly be standing there as an isolated troublemaker. This is what psychologists have discovered through surveying a variety of occupational categories.

Brain research reveals new hope for patients with anorexia nervosa

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:37 AM PST

Researchers used state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to investigate the consequences of anorexia nervosa on brain structure. Their novel findings obtained by measuring "cortical thickness" for the first time in the eating disorder are now published. The authors conclude, "The global thinning of cortical gray matter observed in acutely ill adolescent patients can be completely reversed following successful weight rehabilitation therapy". 

Mapping the interactome: Proteomics reveals the E-cadherin interaction network

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:37 AM PST

Researchers have comprehensively described the network of proteins involved in cell-cell adhesions, or the cadherin interactome. Many biological processes depend on the ability of cells to stick to one another. The formation of multicellular organisms and precise embryonic development rely on this property, as does the maintenance of healthy tissue.

Better detection, prevention, and pre-clinical treatment: Three effective tools in the fight against Alzheimer's

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:36 AM PST

Detection, prevention, and preclinical treatment are three key areas that may make a difference in the battle to reduce the rapid rise of new Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases every year. These three topics are the focus of a new journal supplement.

Chemotherapy can complicate immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:36 AM PST

Immediate breast reconstruction following mastectomy is becoming more prevalent. However, in breast cancer patients undergoing simultaneous chemotherapy, thrombotic complications can arise that can delay or significantly modify reconstructive plans. Outcomes of cases illustrating potential complications are published in a new article.

Mediterranean diet linked to improved CV function in erectile dysfunction patients

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:36 AM PST

The Mediterranean diet is linked to improved cardiovascular performance in patients with erectile dysfunction, according to new research. Patients with erectile dysfunction who had poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet had more vascular and cardiac damage.

Not all induced pluripotent stem cells are made equal

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:36 AM PST

Human stem cells made from adult donor cells "remember" where they came from and that's what they prefer to become again. This means the type of cell obtained from an individual patient to make pluripotent stem cells, determines what can be best done with them.

Vitamin E deficiency linked to greater risk of miscarriage among poor women: Bangladeshi study

Posted: 03 Dec 2014 05:36 AM PST

Pregnant women in Bangladesh with low levels of the most common form of vitamin E are nearly twice as likely to have a miscarriage than those with adequate levels of the vitamin in their blood, according to new research.

Stroke researchers link frontal lesions with improved spatial neglect after prism therapy

Posted: 02 Dec 2014 03:33 PM PST

Stroke researchers have found that the presence of frontal lesions predicts better functional improvement in individuals with spatial neglect who received prism adaptation therapy.

Solving a long-standing mystery, scientists identify principal protein sensor for touch

Posted: 02 Dec 2014 01:14 PM PST

Biologists have solved a long-standing mystery in neuroscience by identifying the "mechanoreceptor" protein that mediates the sense of touch in mammals.

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