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Thursday, December 4, 2014

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

See it, touch it, feel it: Researchers use ultrasound to make invisible 3-D haptic shape that can be seen and felt

Posted: 02 Dec 2014 09:38 AM PST

Technology has changed rapidly over the last few years with touch feedback, known as haptics, being used in entertainment, rehabilitation and even surgical training. New research, using ultrasound, has developed an invisible 3-D haptic shape that can be seen and felt.

Vitamin supplement successfully prevents noise-induced hearing loss

Posted: 02 Dec 2014 09:38 AM PST

A way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss has been found in a mouse using a simple chemical compound that is a precursor to vitamin B3. This discovery has important implications not only for preventing hearing loss, but also potentially for treating some aging-related conditions that are linked to the same protein.

Brain folding study defines two distinct groups of mammals

Posted: 01 Dec 2014 01:33 PM PST

Programs that control the production of neurons during brain development determine how the brain folds, researchers report. The researchers analyzed the gyrencephaly index, indicating the degree of cortical folding, of 100 mammalian brains and identified a threshold value that separates mammalian species into two distinct groups: Those above the threshold have highly folded brains, whereas those below it have only slightly folded or unfolded brains. The research team also found that differences in cortical folding did not evolve linearly across species.

Restrooms: Not as unhealthy as you might think

Posted: 01 Dec 2014 09:53 AM PST

Microbial succession in a sterilized restroom begins with bacteria from the gut and the vagina, and is followed shortly by microbes from the skin. Restrooms are dominated by a stable community structure of skin and outdoor associated bacteria, with few pathogenic bacteria making them similar to other built environments such as your home, researchers report.

It's mean boys, not mean girls, who rule at school, study shows

Posted: 01 Dec 2014 08:32 AM PST

Debunking the myth of the 'mean girl,' new research has found that boys use relational aggression -- malicious rumors, social exclusion and rejection -- to harm or manipulate others more often than girls. The longitudinal study followed a cohort of students from middle to high school and found that, at every grade level, boys engaged in relationally aggressive behavior more often than girls.

Research confirms how global warming links to carbon emissions

Posted: 01 Dec 2014 08:30 AM PST

Research has identified, for the first time, how global warming is related to the amount of carbon emitted. A team of researchers has derived the first theoretical equation to demonstrate that global warming is a direct result of the build-up of carbon emissions since the late 1800s when human-made carbon emissions began. The results are in accord with previous data from climate models.

Breast cancer vaccine shows promise in small clinical trial

Posted: 01 Dec 2014 06:03 AM PST

A breast cancer vaccine is safe in patients with metastatic breast cancer, results of an early clinical trial indicate. Preliminary evidence also suggests that the vaccine primed the patients' immune systems to attack tumor cells and helped slow the cancer's progression.

Transmission mechanism using magnetic levitating gear

Posted: 30 Nov 2014 06:38 PM PST

Researchers are developing a new transmission mechanism with no touching parts, based on magnetic forces which prevent friction and wear and make lubrication unnecessary. It can be applied in space travel and exploration but has also been adapted for use in other areas, such as the railroad and aircraft industries.

'Trigger' for stress processes discovered in brain

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 05:23 AM PST

An important factor for stress has been identified by scientists. This is the protein secretagogin that plays an important role in the release of the stress hormone CRH and which only then enables stress processes in the brain to be transmitted to the pituitary gland and then onwards to the organs.

Elderly brains learn, but maybe too much

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 09:43 AM PST

Learning requires both mental flexibility, or 'plasticity,' and stability. A new study finds that in learning a visual task, older people exhibited a surprising degree of plasticity, but had trouble filtering out irrelevant information, suggesting that their learning was not as stable.

Pleasure at another's misfortune is evident in children as young as two

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 06:40 AM PST

Even very young children will show signs of schadenfreude when an inequitable situation is rectified. Until now, researchers believed that children didn't develop such a sophisticated emotion until the age of seven, but a new study found evidence of schadenfreude in children as young as two.

Pain from rejection, physical pain may not be so similar after all

Posted: 18 Nov 2014 11:19 AM PST

Over the last decade, neuroscientists have largely come to believe that physical pain and social pain are processed by the brain in the same way. But a new study shows that the two kinds of pain actually use distinct neural circuits, a finding that could lead to more targeted treatments and a better understanding of how the two kinds of pain interact.

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