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Wednesday, October 22, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Technology News

ScienceDaily: Top Technology News

NASA Webb's heart survives deep freeze test

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 06:07 PM PDT

After 116 days of being subjected to extremely frigid temperatures like that in space, the heart of the James Webb Space Telescope, the Integrated Science Instrument Module and its sensitive instruments, emerged unscathed from the thermal vacuum chamber at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

New feather findings get scientists in a flap

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 06:06 PM PDT

Scientists have revealed that feather shafts are made of a multi-layered fibrous composite material, much like carbon fiber, which allows the feather to bend and twist to cope with the stresses of flight. Since their appearance over 150 million years ago, feather shafts (rachises) have evolved to be some of the lightest, strongest and most fatigue resistant natural structures.

Special microscope captures defects in nanotubes

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 01:22 PM PDT

Chemists have devised a way to see the internal structures of electronic waves trapped in carbon nanotubes by external electrostatic charges. Carbon nanotubes have been touted as exceptional materials with unique properties that allow for extremely efficient charge and energy transport, with the potential to open the way for new, more efficient types of electronic and photovoltaic devices. However, these traps, or defects, in ultra-thin nanotubes can compromise their effectiveness.

Diet for your DNA: Novel nutrition plan sparks debate around data protection

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 01:21 PM PDT

Personalized nutrition based on an individual's genotype - nutrigenomics - could have a major impact on reducing lifestyle-linked diseases such as obesity, heart disease and Type II diabetes, experts say. However, a study of more than 9,000 volunteers reveals that strict regulations need to be put in place before nutrigenomics becomes publicly acceptable due to people's fears around personal data protection.

Scientists disprove theory that reconstructed boron surface is metallic

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 11:53 AM PDT

Scientific inquiry is a hit and miss proposition, subject to constant checking and rechecking. Recently, a new class of materials was discovered called topological insulators—nonmetallic materials with a metallic surface capable of conducting electrons. The effect, based on relativity theory, exists only in special materials -— those with heavy elements —- and has the potential to revolutionize electronics.

Immersed in violence: How 3-D gaming affects video game players

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 11:53 AM PDT

Playing violent video games in 3-D makes everything seem more real – and that may have troubling consequences for players, a new study reveals. Researchers found that people who played violent video games in 3-D showed more evidence of anger afterward than did people who played using traditional 2-D systems -- even those with large screens.

Could I squeeze by you? Scientists model molecular movement within narrow channels of mesoporous nanoparticles

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 10:50 AM PDT

Scientists have developed deeper understanding of the ideal design for mesoporous nanoparticles used in catalytic reactions, such as hydrocarbon conversion to biofuels. The research will help determine the optimal diameter of channels within the nanoparticles to maximize catalytic output.

Cosmic rays threaten future deep-space astronaut missions

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 10:50 AM PDT

Crewed missions to Mars remain an essential goal for NASA, but scientists are only now beginning to understand and characterize the radiation hazards that could make such ventures risky, concludes a new article.

Super stable garnet ceramics may be ideal for high-energy lithium batteries

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 10:01 AM PDT

Scientists have discovered exceptional properties in a garnet material that could enable development of higher-energy battery designs.

Less-numerate investors swayed by corporate report presentation effects

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 10:01 AM PDT

Less-numerate investors are more susceptible to style and presentation effects in corporate social responsibility reports, according to new research.

Getting the salt out: Electrodialysis can provide cost-effective treatment of salty water from fracked wells

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:14 AM PDT

The boom in oil and gas produced through hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is seen as a boon for meeting U.S. energy needs. But one byproduct of the process is millions of gallons of water that's much saltier than seawater, after leaching salts from rocks deep below the surface. Now researchers say they have found an economical solution for removing the salt from this water.

Beyond LOL cats, social networks could become trove of biodiversity data

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:14 AM PDT

Social networks can be a viable source for photo-vouchered biodiversity records, especially those that clarify which species exist in what places within developing nations, one expert suggests.

Detecting cancer earlier is goal of new medical imaging technology

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:14 AM PDT

A new medical imaging method could help physicians detect cancer and other diseases earlier than before, speeding treatment and reducing the need for invasive, time-consuming biopsies. The potentially lifesaving technique uses nanotechnology and shortwave infrared light to reveal small cancerous tumors and cardiovascular lesions deep inside the body.

Extremely high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:14 AM PDT

For the first time, researchers have succeeded to detect a single hydrogen atom using magnetic resonance imaging, which signifies a huge increase in the technology's spatial resolution. In the future, single-atom MRI could be used to shed new light on protein structures.

New analysis methodology may revolutionize breast cancer therapy

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:13 AM PDT

Stroma cells are derived from connective tissue and may critically influence tumor growth. This knowledge is not new. However, a team of researchers has developed a novel methodology for investigation. Using modern mass spectrometry, tumor-promoting activities from breast fibroblasts were directly determined from needle biopsy samples.

Researchers patent a nanofluid that improves heat conductivity

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:12 AM PDT

Researchers have developed and patented a nanofluid improving thermal conductivity at temperatures up to 400°C without assuming an increase in costs or a remodeling of the infrastructure. This progress has important applications in sectors such as chemical, petrochemical and energy, thus becoming a useful technology in all industrial applications using heat transfer systems such as solar power plants, nuclear power plants, combined-cycle power plants and heating, among other.

Exploring x-ray phase tomography with synchrotron radiation

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:12 AM PDT

X-ray phase tomography is an imaging technique that uses penetrating X-rays to create volumetric views through "slices" or sections of soft biological tissues, such as tumors, and it offers strongly enhanced contrast compared to conventional CT scans. Yet scientists still do not know which X-ray phase tomography methods are best suited to yield optimized results for a wide variety of conditions.

Big black holes can block new stars

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 08:07 AM PDT

Massive black holes spewing out radio-frequency-emitting particles at near-light speed can block formation of new stars in aging galaxies, a study has found.

Physicists solve longstanding puzzle of how moths find distant mates

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 07:16 AM PDT

Physicists have come up with a mathematical explanation for moths' remarkable ability to find mates in the dark hundreds of meters away. The researchers said the results could also be applied widely in agriculture or robotics. By controlling the behaviors of insects exposed to pheromones, they said, researchers could limit the ability of invasive or disease-carrying pests to mate.

Researchers take big-data approach to estimate range of electric vehicles

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 07:15 AM PDT

Researchers have developed new software that estimates how much farther electric vehicles can drive before needing to recharge. The new technique requires drivers to plug in their destination and automatically pulls in data on a host of variables to predict energy use for the vehicle.

POLARBEAR detects B-modes in the cosmic microwave background: Mapping cosmic structure, finding neutrino masses

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 07:11 AM PDT

The POLARBEAR experiment has made the most sensitive and precise measurements yet of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background and found telling twists called B-modes in the patterns, signs that this cosmic backlight has been warped by intervening structures in the universe.

'Designer' nanodevice could improve treatment options for cancer sufferers

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 07:10 AM PDT

Cancer diagnostics and treatment options could be drastically improved with the creation of a 'designer' nanodevice currently being developed by an international team of researchers. The diagnostic 'nanodecoder', which will consist of self-assembled DNA and protein nanostructures, will greatly advance biomarker detection and provide accurate molecular characterization enabling more detailed evaluation of how diseased tissues respond to therapies, they say.

Quantum holograms as atomic scale memory keepsake

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 07:10 AM PDT

A new study demonstrates that quantum holograms could be a candidate for becoming quantum information memory. Scientists have developed a theoretical model of quantum memory for light, adapting the concept of a hologram to a quantum system.

First driverless vehicles for public launched in Singapore

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 07:09 AM PDT

For the first time, two SMART-NUS enhanced driverless buggies to ferry passengers, free-of-charge, around Chinese and Japanese Gardens, as part of the Smart and Connected Jurong Lake District Pilots and Trials initiative.

How radiotherapy kills cancer cells

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 05:55 AM PDT

A new discovery in experimental physics has implications for understanding how radiotherapy kills cancer cells, among other things.

Driving by pointing: pieDrive system simplifies controlling the most up-to-date vehicles

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 05:51 AM PDT

An increasing number of assistance systems are being designed to facilitate driving. Things are heading towards automated driving. What role does the person behind the steering wheel play? Scientists have now developed "pieDrive", an interactive operating concept for vehicles of the future.

Recognizing emotion in text :-S the business benefits :-)

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 05:51 AM PDT

Researchers have advanced the field of affective computing -- the creation of computer systems that recognize, express and process human emotions -- by proposing a new way to recognize emotion in text. Their development has significant potential for business applications.

World record in data transmission with smart circuits

Posted: 21 Oct 2014 05:51 AM PDT

Fewer cords, smaller antennas and quicker video transmission. This may be the result of a new type of microwave circuit. The research team behind the circuits currently holds an attention-grabbing record.

Supercomputers link proteins to drug side effects

Posted: 20 Oct 2014 06:29 PM PDT

New medications created by pharmaceutical companies have helped millions of Americans alleviate pain and suffering from their medical conditions. However, the drug creation process often misses many side effects that kill at least 100,000 patients a year. Now researchers have discovered a high-tech method of using supercomputers to identify proteins that cause medications to have certain adverse drug reactions (ADR) or side effects.

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