Referral Banners

Thursday, February 5, 2015

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

Scientists predict Earth-like planets around most stars

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 03:44 PM PST

Planetary scientists have calculated that there are hundreds of billions of Earth-like planets in our galaxy which might support life, by applying a 200 year old idea to the thousands of exo-planets discovered by the Kepler space telescope.

Pigeon power: Study suggests similarity between how pigeons learn the equivalent of words and the way children do

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 03:44 PM PST

A new study finds pigeons can categorize 128 photographs into 16 categories of natural and humanmade objects, a skill researchers say is similar to the mechanism children use to learn words.

New way to use electric fields to deliver cancer treatment

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 03:42 PM PST

A team of researchers has devised a new way to target tumors with cancer-fighting drugs, a discovery that may lead to clinical treatments for cancer patients. Called iontophoresis, the technique delivers chemotherapy to select areas.

Compound found in grapes, red wine may help prevent memory loss

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 03:42 PM PST

A compound found in common foods such as red grapes and peanuts may help prevent age-related decline in memory, according to new research.

Factors predicting infection risk in patients with serious burns

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 01:31 PM PST

Investigators have identified a set of characteristics -- including differences in gene expression -- that may indicate which patients recovering from severe burns are at greatest risk for repeat infections. The ability to predict the risk of infection before it occurs would indicate which patients should receive preventive treatment and should reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics in those at low risk.

New microscopy technique allows mapping protein synthesis in living tissues and animals

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 01:30 PM PST

Building on previously published research, investigators have advanced technology to allow for time-lapse images of protein synthesis with high spatial-temporal resolution in live cells/tissues and map protein degradation in live cells/tissue. They've successfully demonstrated that this technology can be used to image protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish and mice in vivo, making it a useful tool for biomedical researchers studying complex protein metabolism in everything from cell lines to living animals/humans.

Possible use of medical marijuana for depression

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 01:30 PM PST

Scientists are studying chronic stress and depression, with a focus on endocannabinoids, which are brain chemicals similar to substances in marijuana.

Bioengineered miniature structures could prevent heart failure

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 11:46 AM PST

The delivery of tiny biodegradable microstructures to heart tissue damaged by heart attack may help repair the tissue and prevent future heart failure.

An extra protein gives naked mole rats more power to stop cancer

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 11:46 AM PST

A protein newly found in the naked mole rat may help explain its unique ability to ward off cancer. The protein is associated with a locus that is also found in humans and mice. It's the job of that locus to encode several cancer-fighting proteins. The locus found in naked mole rats encodes a total of four cancer-fighting proteins, while the human and mouse version encodes only three.

Premature babies grow out of asthma

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 11:46 AM PST

Premature babies grow out of the asthma which they are likely to develop in early life. Babies born prematurely are more likely to develop asthma, but they grow out of it.

E-cigarette exposure impairs immune responses in mouse model

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 11:45 AM PST

In a study with mice, researchers have found that e-cigarettes compromise the immune system in the lungs and generate some of the same potentially dangerous chemicals found in traditional nicotine cigarettes.

HIV and syphilis biomarkers: Smartphone, finger prick, 15 minute diagnosis

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 11:45 AM PST

Medical researchers have developed a low-cost smartphone accessory that can perform a point-of-care test that simultaneously detects three infectious disease markers -- HIV and syphilis -- from a finger prick of blood in just 15 minutes. The device replicates, for the first time, all mechanical, optical, and electronic functions of a lab-based blood test without requiring any stored energy: all necessary power is drawn from the smartphone.

Anti-epilepsy drug preserves brain function after stroke, research suggests

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

New research suggests that an already-approved drug could dramatically reduce the debilitating impact of strokes, which affect nearly a million Americans every year.

The brain's social network: Nerve cells interact like friends on Facebook

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

Neurons in the brain are wired like a social network, according to new research. Each nerve cell has links with many others, but the strongest bonds form between the few cells most similar to each other.

Standardized approach to creation and use of antibodies urged

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

A worldwide group of antibody experts appeal for a standardized approach to the creation and use of antibodies in research and therapeutics.

Fossils from heart of Amazon provide evidence that South American monkeys came from Africa

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

The early evolutionary history of monkeys in South America is cloaked in mystery. Long thought to have journeyed from Africa, evidence for this hypothesis was difficult to support without fossil data. A new discovery now unveils a key chapter of their evolutionary saga. The discovery of three new extinct monkeys from eastern Peru hints strongly that South American monkeys have an African ancestry.

Scientists reprogram plants for drought tolerance

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

Plant biologists report that drought tolerance in plants can be improved by engineering them to activate water-conserving processes in response to an agrochemical already in use -- an approach that could be broadly applied to other parts of the same drought-response pathway and a range of other agrochemicals. The finding illustrates the power of synthetic biological approaches for manipulating crops, opening new doors for crop improvement.

Cheap and abundant chemical outperforms precious metals as a catalyst

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

Chemists have discovered that a cheap, safe, and abundant potassium compound can be used instead of rare precious metals as a catalyst in the production of chemicals important for drug discovery, agricultural science, medical imaging, and the creation of new materials.

Evidence from warm past confirms recent IPCC estimates of climate sensitivity

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 10:41 AM PST

New evidence showing the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide millions of years ago supports recent climate change predictions from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Opioid and heroin crisis triggered by doctors overprescribing painkillers

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 09:59 AM PST

Researchers say policymakers must look beyond painkiller abuse in their efforts to reduce opioid overdose deaths. New research reframes the heroin and prescription drug abuse problem as a wave of opioid addiction caused by overprescribing of painkillers by doctors.

Listening carefully: Brain waves indicate listening challenges in older adults

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 09:59 AM PST

The elderly often complain about hearing difficulties, especially when several people are talking all at once. Researchers have discovered that the reason for this does not just concern the ear but also changes in the attention processes in the brain of older people. Particular importance is attached to the alpha waves whose adaption to altered hearing situations improves speech comprehension in everyday situations.

Contraceptive counseling at dermatologist's office improves knowledge of effectiveness

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 09:59 AM PST

Providing women who take a powerful acne drug with a fact sheet about contraception while visiting the dermatologist can significantly improve their awareness of the most effective birth control options and may prevent unintended pregnancies and birth defects that can be caused by the drug.

Rapid and unexpected weight gain after fecal transplant

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 09:58 AM PST

A woman successfully treated for a recurrent Clostridium difficile infection with stool from an overweight donor rapidly gained weight herself afterwards, becoming obese, according to a case report.

Schizophrenia, depression, addiction: Different mental disorders cause same brain-matter loss

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 09:58 AM PST

In a study analyzing whole-brain images from nearly 16,000 people, researchers identified a common pattern across a spectrum of psychiatric disorders that are widely perceived to be quite distinct.

Five-year outcomes following bariatric surgery in patients with BMIs of 50 to 60

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 09:58 AM PST

The bariatric surgical procedure biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch resulted in more weight loss and better improvement in blood lipids and glucose five years after surgery compared with usual gastric bypass surgery but duodenal switch was associated with more long-term surgical and nutritional complications and more adverse gastrointestinal effects, according to a new report.

Catalyst uses light to convert nitrogen to ammonia: Potential for environmentally friendly fertilizer

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 08:20 AM PST

Scientists have developed a catalyst that can perform a remarkable feat found only in nature: take nitrogen from the air and turn it into ammonia under natural conditions. No high temperatures or pressure required. Driven by light, the new method offers promise for a more environmentally friendly fertilizer. Ammonia is the critical component in fertilizer.

Programming safety into self-driving cars: Better AI algorithms for semi-autonomous vehicles

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 08:19 AM PST

For decades, researchers in artificial intelligence, or AI, worked on specialized problems, developing theoretical concepts and workable algorithms for various aspects of the field. Computer vision, planning and reasoning experts all struggled independently in areas that many thought would be easy to solve, but which proved incredibly difficult.

West Africa: Hepatitis C more prevalent than HIV/AIDS or Ebola yet lacks equal attention

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 07:27 AM PST

Hepatitis C is more prevalent than HIV/AIDS or Ebola in parts of Africa, yet lacks equal attention, researchers say. 'In West Africa, we believe that there are many transmission modes and they are not through IV drug use, but through cultural and every day practices,' says the principal investigator on the study. 'In this study, tribal scarring, home birthing and traditional as opposed to hospital based circumcision procedures, were associated with hepatitis C infection in Ghana.'

Groundbreaking technique developed to measure oxygen in deep-sited tumor, brain

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 07:25 AM PST

A novel Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) oximetry technique will help clinicians directly measure oxygen and schedule treatments at times of high oxygen levels in cancer and stroke patients to improve outcomes, researchers have found.

Newly discovered protein has link to gestational diabetes

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 07:25 AM PST

For at least 40 years, scientists who study how the body metabolizes sugar have accepted one point: there are four enzymes that kick-start the body's process of getting energy from food. But this biochemical foursome may not deserve all of the credit. According to research, the hexokinase team actually has a fifth player.

Crucial role of breast cancer tumor suppressor revealed

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 06:02 AM PST

In recent years, medical professionals have been greatly interested in the development of new treatments to combat the spread of cancer, which is the largest cause of death in patients with this illness. A new study details how cells with low levels of the profilin 1 protein in breast tumors increase their capacity to metastasize and invade other tissues.

New nanoparticle gene therapy strategy effectively treats deadly brain cancer in rats

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 06:01 AM PST

Nanoparticles have been used to successfully deliver a new therapy to cancer cells in the brains of rats, prolonging their lives, scientists report. Previous research on mice found that nanoparticles carrying genes can be taken up by brain cancer cells, and the genes can then be turned on. However, this is the first time these biodegradable nanoparticles have effectively killed brain cancer cells and extended survival in animals.

Structurally reinforced hydrogel material developed using electrostatic repulsive force between nanosheets

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 06:01 AM PST

A newly created material withstands vertical loads applied in the direction perpendicular to its layers while distorting in the horizontal direction. It is promising as a vibration-damping material.

Noble metal nanoparticles coated with silica by a simple process that does not employ alcohol

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 06:01 AM PST

Noble metal nanoparticles can be coated with silica by a simple, environmentally friendly process that does not employ alcohol.

Security: Protecting customers charging electric vehicles on smart electricity grids

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 06:01 AM PST

As electricity grids become more sophisticated, grid administrators can collect instantaneous data on consumer and supplier behavior. The 'smart grid' then learns to improve the reliability, costs and sustainability of electricity distribution. However, smart grids present new security challenges, especially for mobile systems such as electric vehicles (EVs), which can be attacked both electronically and physically.

Full-color moving holograms in high resolution

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 06:01 AM PST

Three-dimensional (3D) movies, which require viewers to wear stereoscopic (i.e. Related to the technique of creating an impression of depth by showing two slightly offset flat images to each eye) glasses, have become very popular in recent years. However, the 3D effect produced by the glasses cannot provide perfect depth cues. Furthermore, it is not possible to move one's head and observe that objects appear different from different angles -- a real-life effect known as motion parallax. Now, researchers have developed a new way of generating high-resolution, full-color, 3D videos that uses holographic technology.

Researchers question treatment of infertility with stem cells

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:53 AM PST

Researchers are questioning the notion that infertility can be treated with stem cells. The classical theory is based on the idea that the eggs a woman has are the ones she has had from birth, but there are researchers who claim that stem cell research could lead to the creation of new eggs. If so, this would mean that infertile women, such as those who have entered the menopause, could be given new eggs. But new studies now show that the dream of successfully treating infertility with stem cells will probably not be realized.

Link between early menopause, chronic fatigue syndrome discovered

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:53 AM PST

A newfound link between chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and early menopause has been reported by researchers. This link, as well as links with other gynecologic problems and with pelvic pain, may help explain why CFS is two to four times more common in women than in men and is most prevalent in women in their 40s.

VISTA stares right through the Milky Way, sees Trifid Nebula in a new light

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:53 AM PST

A new image taken with ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals the Trifid Nebula in a new light. By observing in infrared light, astronomers can see right through the central parts of the Milky Way and spot many previously hidden objects. In one of the VISTA surveys, astronomers have discovered very distant Cepheid variable stars. They are the first such stars found that lie in the central plane of the Milky Way beyond its central bulge.

Ingenious fine-tuning of plant photosynthesis

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:52 AM PST

The specific roles of the two most abundant membrane proteins on Earth, Lhcb1 and 2 have been the focus of recent research. Both of them are responsible for light harvesting which is the basis of photosynthesis, the process which sustains life on Earth by providing the oxygen we breathe and the food we eat.

Inhospitable climate fosters gold ore formation

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:52 AM PST

The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa holds the world's largest gold deposits across a 200-km long swathe. Individual ore deposits are spread out in thin layers over areas up to 10 by 10 km and contain more gold than any other gold deposit in the world. Some 40% of the precious metal that has been found up to the present day comes from this area, and hundreds of tons of gold deposits still lie beneath the earth. The manner in which these giant deposits formed is still debated among geologists. Geologists are now trying to reconcile the contradictions of two previously published theories.

Code cracked for infections by major group of viruses including common cold and polio

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:52 AM PST

Researchers have cracked a code that governs infections by a major group of viruses including the common cold and polio. Until now, scientists had not noticed the code, which had been hidden in plain sight in the sequence of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) that makes up this type of viral genome.

Progress toward the understanding of the galactic structure

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:52 AM PST

Researchers are studying the evolution and formation of hundreds of near galaxies. Galaxies are made up of millions of stars and their structures depend on the evolving process in which they have been subjected, including interactions with other nearby galaxies. Galaxies are a key element on cosmology, since the understanding of their structure is an approach to the phenomena that govern the formation of the universe.

New look at complex head and neck tumor behavior

Posted: 04 Feb 2015 04:48 AM PST

Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) ranks among the top ten most prevalent cancers in the United States. Despite its prevalence, little is known about how this cancer develops and spreads. However, researchers now offer critical new information about head and neck cancers.

Artificially intelligent robot scientist 'Eve' could boost search for new drugs

Posted: 03 Feb 2015 05:44 PM PST

Eve, an artificially intelligent 'robot scientist' could make drug discovery faster and much cheaper, say researchers writing in the Royal Society journal Interface. The team has demonstrated the success of the approach as Eve discovered that a compound shown to have anti-cancer properties might also be used in the fight against malaria.

Tropical wasps attack intruders with unfamiliar faces

Posted: 03 Feb 2015 05:43 PM PST

The scientists went to the remote tropical forests of South East Asia to study this tiny wasp species. Each nest contains a family of related individuals and hundreds of nests can be clustered together to form a kind of city. Close proximity to so many other families means each colony faces persistent landing attempts by intruders from the neighborhood, and these might steal resources or theoretically lay cuckoo eggs.

Machine learning offers insights into evolution of monkey faces, researchers find

Posted: 03 Feb 2015 05:42 PM PST

Computers are able to use monkey facial patterns not only to correctly identify species, but also distinguish individuals within species, a team of scientists has found. Their findings, which rely on computer algorithms to identify guenon monkeys, suggest that machine learning can be a tool in studying evolution and help to identify the factors that have led to facial differentiation in monkey evolution.

Cocaine users have impaired ability to predict loss

Posted: 03 Feb 2015 04:00 PM PST

Cocaine addicted individuals may continue their habit despite unfavorable consequences like imprisonment or loss of relationships because their brain circuits responsible for predicting emotional loss are impaired, according to a new study.

No comments: