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Monday, January 19, 2015

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Overcoming treatment resistance in prostate cancer: New strategy proposed

Posted: 16 Jan 2015 01:14 PM PST

Two promising biomarker candidates in prostate cancer have been discovered by researchers, whose work may lead to a new treatment strategy aggressive, treatment-resistant forms of the disease.

Team enlarges brain samples, making them easier to image

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 12:29 PM PST

Researchers have discovered a method that enlarges tissue samples by embedding them in a polymer that swells when water is added. This technique, which uses inexpensive, commercially available chemicals and microscopes commonly found in research labs, should give many more scientists access to super-resolution imaging, the researchers say.

Healthy diet associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in minority women

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 12:29 PM PST

Consuming a healthy diet was associated with reduced risk for type 2 diabetes among women in all racial and ethnic groups but conferred an even greater benefit for Asian, Hispanic, and black women, according to a new study.

Women who experience 'postpartum' depression before giving birth may face greater risk

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 12:28 PM PST

Postpartum depression (PPD) may have a diverse clinical presentation and this has critical implications for diagnosis, treatment and understanding the underlying biology of the illness, a new study finds. "Clinicians should be aware of the diverse presentation of women with postpartum depression," said a corresponding collaborator of the study. "A thorough assessment of a women's history is necessary to guide appropriate clinical and treatment decisions."

Gene tied to profound vision loss discovered by scientists

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 12:28 PM PST

An exhaustive hereditary analysis of a large Louisiana family with vision issues has uncovered a new gene tied to an incurable eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa. It is a family of eye diseases that affects more than 200,000 in the United States and millions worldwide

Human mode of responding to HIV vaccine is conserved from monkeys

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 12:28 PM PST

The antibody response from an HIV vaccine trial in Thailand was made possible by a genetic trait carried over in humans from an ancient ancestry with monkeys and apes, according to a study. Researchers report that an investigational vaccine that elicited an immune response in an estimated 31 percent of participants was able to do so because of a particular antibody gene motif that is shared with rhesus macaques and other primates.

A fatty acid used to decode weight control

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:23 AM PST

A new study uses a data-driven approach to jointly analyze the lipidome, gene expression and phenotype from 135 obese women who took part in one of the most comprehensive dietary programs worldwide. The trial induced weight loss through an 8-week low calorie diet and a subsequent 6-month ad libitum weight maintenance diet.

Estimating the best time of year for malaria interventions in Africa

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:23 AM PST

New methods for analyzing malaria transmission can estimate the best time of year to carry out campaigns such as mass drug treatment and spraying of houses with insecticide.

Increasing reach of treatment for STIs through expedited partner therapy

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:23 AM PST

A public health program promoting the use of expedited partner therapy -- the treatment, without medical evaluation, of sex partners of patients diagnosed with a curable sexually transmitted disease -- increased expedited partner therapy use and may have reduced rates of sexually transmitted disease in the population, though the intervention's effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted disease in the general population requires further confirmation, according to a new study.

New study reveals crippling financial burden of leprosy

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:22 AM PST

Households affected by leprosy face being pushed further into poverty as a result of loss of earnings and treatment costs, according to the first ever study of the economic burden of a common complication of the disease.

Study supports new explanation of gender gaps in academia

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:22 AM PST

It isn't that women don't want to work long hours or can't compete in highly selective fields, and it isn't that they are less analytical than men, researchers report in a study of gender gaps in academia. It appears instead that women are underrepresented in academic fields whose practitioners put a lot of emphasis on the importance of being brilliant -- a quality many people assume women lack.

New targeted treatment strategy for some aggressive cancers

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:22 AM PST

The first potential treatment targeting a pathway by which several aggressive tumors maintain their ability to proliferate has been discovered by scientists. Treatment with a small molecule that blocks a key step in the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway was able to inhibit the growth and survival of ALT-positive tumor cells

Electronic medical record provides pathologists powerful tool to push best practices in transfusions

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:16 AM PST

By implementing a "best practice alert" function in the electronic medical record, pathologists in a recent study significantly reduced physicians' orders for two-unit transfusions for non-bleeding patients.

Vaccine-inducedCD4 T cells lead to adverse effect in a mouse model of infection

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 11:16 AM PST

A vaccine that elicits only CD4 T cells resulted in an overwhelming inflammatory response in a mouse model of infection, scientists report. In battling infections, the body's immune system produces both B cells, which make antibodies to neutralize the invading pathogen, and T cells which directly destroy the virus. "There are two types of T cells -- CD8 and CD4 -- which battle invading pathogens," explains the lead author. "The CD8 T cells take the lead in eliminating virally infected cells while the CD4 'helper' T cells function indirectly, serving to bolster the responses of both CD8 T cells and antibody-producing B cells." T cell-based vaccines are designed to activate this type of immune response.

What causes brain problems after traumatic brain injury? Studies have a surprising answer

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 10:48 AM PST

There is a widespread misunderstanding about the true nature of traumatic brain injury and how it causes chronic degenerative problems, researchers argue. The authors propose that chronic brain damage and neuropsychiatric problems after trauma are largely caused by long-term inflammation in the brain. They say inflammation is a key culprit behind the symptoms linked with TBI, including brain atrophy and depression.

How midbrain map continuously updates visuospatial memory

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 10:48 AM PST

Researchers have discovered a new physiological system that continuously updates the remembered location of visual targets. The finding also suggests that continuous updating of signals could emerge in other visuomotor areas of the brain.

Discovery of CLPB gene associated with a new pediatric mitochondrial syndrome

Posted: 15 Jan 2015 10:47 AM PST

A new study describes a new pediatric mitochondrial syndrome and discovery of the responsible gene, called CLPB. Researchers report findings based on gene mapping and exome sequencing in five children with CLPB-related disease. These patients had strikingly similar clinical findings including cataracts, severe psychomotor regression during febrile episodes, epilepsy, neutropenia with frequent infections, urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, and death in early childhood.

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