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Monday, December 1, 2014

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

January-October 2014 temperatures highest on record

Posted: 29 Nov 2014 04:57 AM PST

The global average temperature over land and ocean surfaces for January to October 2014 was the highest on record, according to the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It said October was the hottest since records began in 1880.

Emergence of modern sea ice in Arctic Ocean, 2.6 million years ago

Posted: 28 Nov 2014 05:06 AM PST

The extent of sea ice cover in Arctic was much less than it is today between four and five million years ago. The maximum winter extent did not reaching its current location until around 2.6 million years ago. "We have not seen an ice free period in the Arctic Ocean for 2,6 million years. However, we may see it in our lifetime." says a marine geologist.

New material makes water and oil roll off

Posted: 28 Nov 2014 05:06 AM PST

Car finish, to which no dirt particles adhere, house fronts, from which graffiti paints roll off, and shoes that remain clean on muddy paths – the material "fluoropore" might make all this possible. Both water and oil droplets roll off this new class of highly fluorinated super-repellent polymers.

Another human footprint in the ocean: Rising anthropogenic nitrate levels in North Pacific Ocean

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 06:23 PM PST

Human-induced changes to Earth's carbon cycle -- for example, rising atmospheric carbon dioxide and ocean acidification -- have been observed for decades. However, a new study has shown that human activities, in particular industrial and agricultural processes, have also had significant impacts on the upper ocean nitrogen cycle.

Fragile X study offers hope of new autism treatment

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 10:57 AM PST

People affected by a common inherited form of autism could be helped by a drug that is being tested as a treatment for cancer, according to researchers. Fragile X Syndrome is the most common genetic cause of autism spectrum disorders. It affects around 1 in 4,000 boys and 1 in 6,000 girls. Currently, there is no cure.

Mindfulness treatment as effective as CBT for depression, anxiety

Posted: 27 Nov 2014 08:27 AM PST

Group mindfulness treatment is as effective as individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with depression and anxiety, according to a new study. This is the first randomized study to compare group mindfulness treatment and individual cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with depression and anxiety in primary health care.

Post-medieval Polish buried as potential 'vampires' were likely local

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 11:42 AM PST

Potential 'vampires' buried in northwestern Poland with sickles and rocks across their bodies were likely local and not immigrants to the region. In northwestern Poland, apotropaic funerary rites--a traditional practice intended to prevent evil--occurred throughout the 17th-18th c. AD.

Unbelievable underworld and its impact on us all

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 10:27 AM PST

A new study has pulled together research into the most diverse place on earth to demonstrate how the organisms below-ground could hold the key to understanding how the worlds ecosystems function and how they are responding to climate change.

Brain researchers pinpoint gateway to human memory

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 08:12 AM PST

An international team of researchers has successfully determined the location, where memories are generated with a level of precision never achieved before. To this end the scientists used a particularly accurate type of magnetic resonance imaging technology.

New evidence of ancient rock art across Southeast Asia

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 06:42 AM PST

Research on the oldest surviving rock art of Southeast Asia shows the region's first people brought with them a rich art practice. These earliest people skilfully produced paintings of animals in rock shelters from southwest China to Indonesia. Besides these countries, early sites were also recorded in Thailand, Cambodia and Malaysia.

Bioengineering study finds two-cell mouse embryos already 'talking' about their future

Posted: 26 Nov 2014 06:42 AM PST

Bioengineers have discovered that mouse embryos are contemplating their cellular fates in the earliest stages after fertilization when the embryo has only two to four cells, a discovery that could upend the scientific consensus about when embryonic cells begin differentiating into cell types. Their research used single-cell RNA sequencing to look at every gene in the mouse genome.

New study examines effect of timing of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy

Posted: 25 Nov 2014 05:58 PM PST

Taking folic acid before conception significantly reduces the risk of small for gestational age at birth, suggests a new study. Folic acid supplementation has already been shown to reduce the risk of neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, and it is recommended for women to start folic acid supplementation pre-conceptually. However, uptake is low, state the authors, and previous studies have suggested rates of pre-conceptual uptake to be between 14.8% and 31%, with lower uptake in younger age groups and ethnic minorities.

Trojan horse tactic gives parasites edge over immune systems

Posted: 25 Nov 2014 08:18 AM PST

Parasites use Trojan horse subterfuge to suppress the immunity of their victims when causing infection, according to a study. Scientists have shown that parasites are able to secrete tiny sealed packages of genetic material into the cells of their victims, in order to suppress the immune response to infection.

Does a yogurt a day keep diabetes away?

Posted: 25 Nov 2014 04:48 AM PST

A high intake of yogurt has been found to be associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes, according to research. This highlights the importance of having yogurt as part of a healthy diet.

Avoiding ecosystem collapse: Experts Weigh in

Posted: 24 Nov 2014 09:56 AM PST

From coral reefs to prairie grasslands, some of the world's most iconic habitats are susceptible to sudden collapse due to seemingly minor events. A classic example: the decimation of kelp forests when a decline of otter predation unleashes urchin population explosions. Three studies hold the promise of helping resource managers predict, avoid, and reverse the tipping points that lead to degraded habitats, economic losses, and social upheaval.

Cooling with the coldest matter in the world

Posted: 24 Nov 2014 08:18 AM PST

Physicists have developed a new cooling technique for mechanical quantum systems. Using an ultracold atomic gas, the vibrations of a membrane were cooled down to less than 1 degree above absolute zero. This technique may enable novel studies of quantum physics and precision measurement devices.

Molecules that came in handy for first life on Earth

Posted: 24 Nov 2014 04:48 AM PST

For the first time, chemists have successfully produced amino acid-like molecules that all have the same 'handedness', from simple building blocks and in a single test tube. Could this be how life started. On Earth? Or in space, as the Philae lander is currently exploring?

Fasting triggers stem cell regeneration of damaged, old immune system

Posted: 05 Jun 2014 11:15 AM PDT

In the first evidence of a natural intervention triggering stem cell-based regeneration of an organ or system, a study shows that cycles of prolonged fasting not only protect against immune system damage -- a major side effect of chemotherapy -- but also induce immune system regeneration, shifting stem cells from a dormant state to a state of self-renewal.

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