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Wednesday, October 8, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

New 'lab-on-a-chip' could revolutionize early diagnosis of cancer

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 10:14 AM PDT

A breakthrough paper has been published describing researchers' invention of a miniaturized biomedical testing device for exosomes. "Exosomes are minuscule membrane vesicles -- or sacs -- released from most, if not all, cell types, including cancer cells," said one chemist. "They were once thought to be trash bags containing unwanted cellular contents. However, in the past decade scientists realized that exosomes play important roles in many biological functions through capsuling and delivering molecular messages in the form of nucleic acids and proteins from the donor cells to affect the functions of nearby or distant cells."

Toddlers regulate behavior to avoid making adults angry

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 10:14 AM PDT

Children as young as 15 months can detect anger when watching other people's social interactions and then use that emotional information to guide their own behavior. The study is the first evidence that younger toddlers are capable of using multiple cues from emotions and vision to understand the motivations of the people around them.

'Cyberwar' against cancer gets a boost from intelligent nanocarriers

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 10:14 AM PDT

Cancer possesses special traits for cooperative behavior and uses intricate communication to distribute tasks, share resources, and make decisions. New research now offers additional insight into the lethal interaction between cancer cells and the immune system's communications network.

Can physical therapy before hip, knee replacement surgery improve outcomes?

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 08:12 AM PDT

Physical therapy after total hip or total knee replacement surgery is standard care for all patients. "Prehabilitation," as it is sometimes called, can diminish the need for postoperative care by nearly 30 percent, saving an average of $1,215 per patient in skilled nursing facility, home health agency or other postoperative care, a study found.

Liquid detergent pods pose risk to children's eye health

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 08:11 AM PDT

Detergent pods may offer a simpler way to do laundry, but they represent a source of potential danger when in the hands of a young child. When squeezed or bitten into, these pods can burst and send detergent into the mouth, nose, and eyes.

Small molecule 'jams the switch' to prevent inflammatory cell death

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 07:34 AM PDT

A small molecule that blocks a form of cell death that triggers inflammation has been discovered by scientists, opening the door for potential new treatments for inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis.

Stroke-fighting drug offers potential treatment for traumatic brain injury

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 07:34 AM PDT

The only drug currently approved for treatment of stroke's crippling effects shows promise, when administered as a nasal spray, to help heal similar damage in less severe forms of traumatic brain injury. In the first examination of its kind, researchers found in animal studies that the brain's limited ability to repair itself after trauma can be enhanced when treated with the drug tPA, or tissue plasminogen activator.

Sharing makes both good, bad experiences more intense

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 07:34 AM PDT

Undergoing an experience with another person -- even if we do it in silence, with someone we met just moments ago -- seems to intensify that experience, according to new research. The research shows that people who share experiences with another person rate those experiences as more pleasant or unpleasant than those who undergo the experience on their own.

Acknowledging appearance reduces bias when beauties apply for masculine jobs, says study

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 07:33 AM PDT

Past research shows physical beauty can be detrimental to women applying for masculine jobs. But belles can put the brakes on discrimination by acknowledging their looks during an interview, according to a new study.

Testosterone promotes prostate cancer in rats

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 07:31 AM PDT

A researcher who found that testosterone raised the risk of prostate tumors and exacerbated the effects of carcinogenic chemical exposure in rats is urging caution in prescribing testosterone therapy to men who have not been diagnosed with hypogonadism, according to a new study.

Sandwiches a major contributor to dietary sodium intake

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:24 AM PDT

Sandwiches make up a substantial part of the American diet and are a significant contributor to daily energy and sodium intake. By closely analyzing data from an American nationwide dietary intake survey, a team of researchers found that on any given day 49 percent of US adults eat at least one sandwich, and sandwiches account for one-fifth of total daily sodium intake.

Computers turned into powerful allies in fight against AIDS

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:23 AM PDT

The battle against AIDS cannot be won in the laboratory alone. To fight the potentially deadly virus that 34 million people are suffering from we need help from computers. Now research turns computers into powerful allies in the battle.

Probiotics protect children, pregnant women against heavy metal poisoning

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:23 AM PDT

Yogurt containing probiotic bacteria successfully protected children and pregnant women against heavy metal exposure in a recent study. Canadian and Tanzanian researchers created and distributed a special yogurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus bacteria and observed the outcomes against a control group.

Coffee in the Genes? New genetic variants associated with coffee drinking

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:23 AM PDT

A new, large-scale study has identified six new genetic variants associated with habitual coffee drinking. "Coffee and caffeine have been linked to beneficial and adverse health effects. Our findings may allow us to identify subgroups of people most likely to benefit from increasing or decreasing coffee consumption for optimal health," said the lead author of the study.

Rural hospitals replicate experiences of big city stroke care

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:23 AM PDT

A new model for stroke care is being studied in rural Alberta to reduce inequities in health across communities. This model shows how hospitals in rural areas can mimic the type of care that's often only available in larger centers.

Stroke patients past 90-day danger period remain at high risk for repeat event

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:23 AM PDT

People who have had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA or mini-stroke) are at high risk for a second similar event or other serious medical problems for at least five years and need better follow up and strategies to prevent these problems, according to data.

MRI technique detects evidence of cognitive decline before symptoms appear

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:23 AM PDT

A magnetic resonance imaging technique can detect signs of cognitive decline in the brain even before symptoms appear, according to a new study. The technique has the potential to serve as a biomarker in very early diagnosis of preclinical dementia.

Adolescents with cerebral palsy report similar quality of life to their able-bodied peers

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:22 AM PDT

Adolescents with cerebral palsy face multiple challenges, but they rate their quality of life (QoL) on a par with their able-bodied peers, according to new research reporting on how adolescents with cerebral palsy from nine European regions feel about life.

Molecule that protects women's eggs identified

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:22 AM PDT

In order to be able to have a child, a woman needs eggs that can grow and mature. After fertilization, an embryo forms. During the maturation process, the egg goes through a number of stages of reductional division, called meiosis. If problems occur during any of these stages, the woman can become infertile. Researchers now discovered that the molecule Greatwall kinase is of great importance in order for the eggs of the female mouse to be able to complete the first phase and move on to the second meiotic division during the maturation of the egg.

World's first child born after uterus transplantation

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:21 AM PDT

Seven Swedish women have had embryos reintroduced after receiving wombs from living donors. Now the first transplanted woman has delivered a baby – a healthy and normally developed boy.

Near-death experiences? Results of the world's largest medical study of the human mind and consciousness at time of death

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:21 AM PDT

The results of a four-year international study of 2060 cardiac arrest cases across 15 hospitals concludes the following. The themes relating to the experience of death appear far broader than what has been understood so far, or what has been described as so called near-death experiences. In some cases of cardiac arrest, memories of visual awareness compatible with so called out-of-body experiences may correspond with actual events. A higher proportion of people may have vivid death experiences, but do not recall them due to the effects of brain injury or sedative drugs on memory circuits. Widely used yet scientifically imprecise terms such as near-death and out-of-body experiences may not be sufficient to describe the actual experience of death. The recalled experience surrounding death merits a genuine investigation without prejudice.

Printing in the hobby room: Paper-thin and touch-sensitive displays on various materials

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:21 AM PDT

Until now, if you want to print a greeting card for a loved one, you can use colorful graphics, fancy typefaces or special paper to enhance it. But what if you could integrate paper-thin displays into the cards, which could be printed at home and which would be able to depict self-created symbols or even react to touch? Those only some of the options computer scientists can now offer. They have just developed an approach that in the future will enable laypeople to print displays in any desired shape on various materials and therefore could change everyday life completely.

Thyroid carcinoma: Biomarker reveals cancer cause

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:20 AM PDT

The expression of the protein CLIP2 provides information on whether a papillary thyroid carcinoma was induced by radiation or had a sporadic origin. With this discovery, scientists have identified a new biomarker for the diagnosis of the cancer cause.

Non-coding half of human genome unlocked with novel sequencing technique

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:17 AM PDT

An obscure swatch of human DNA once thought to be nothing more than biological trash may actually offer a treasure trove of insight into complex genetic-related diseases such as cancer and diabetes, thanks to a novel sequencing technique developed by biologists.

Potty training before age two linked to increased risk of later wetting problems

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:16 AM PDT

Children who start toilet training before age 2 have a three times higher risk of developing daytime wetting problems later, according to new research. Additionally, in the current study, early trainers were three times more likely to complain of constipation than normal trainers. "Almost all of the children who had wetting also had constipation," the authors noted.

Guidelines for clinical trials of Alzheimer's blood test

Posted: 07 Oct 2014 06:16 AM PDT

Researchers have moved a step closer to making a simple blood test to detect early Alzheimer's disease available for screening older adults. The highly rigid guidelines will be used in research for blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease and will ensure every lab is following the same protocol when collecting blood, researchers said.

New technique allows scientists to find rare stem cells within bone marrow

Posted: 06 Oct 2014 12:21 PM PDT

A new technique to identify populations of rare stem cells in bone marrow has been found by scientists. Until now, there has been no good way to separate MSCs from bone marrow cells that have already begun to differentiate into other cell types, but share the same molecules on the cell surface. This may be one reason why research results vary among labs, and why stem-cell treatments now in clinical trials are not as effective as they could be, says the paper's senior author.

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