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Thursday, October 16, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Gradual weight loss no better than rapid weight loss for long-term weight control

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 04:08 PM PDT

Contrary to current dietary recommendations, slow and steady weight loss does not reduce the amount or rate of weight regain compared with losing weight quickly, new research has found.

Personalized cellular therapy achieves complete remission in 90 percent of acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients studied

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 04:08 PM PDT

Ninety percent of children and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had relapsed multiple times or failed to respond to standard therapies went into remission after receiving an investigational personalized cellular therapy, CTL019, researchers report.

Diversity in Medical Education: Not So Black and White Anymore

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 04:06 PM PDT

The evolution of diversity in medical education is the topic of a recent article. Achieving diversity in today's medical schools goes beyond bringing underrepresented students into the fold, the author says. It's about creating an optimal learning environment, where people with different ideas, cultures, opinions, and experiences feel comfortable amongst each other and part of a larger dialogue to come together to solve tomorrow's health care problems.

Optimal particle size for anticancer nanomedicines discovered

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 01:56 PM PDT

Nanomedicines consisting of nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to specific tissues and cells offer new solutions for cancer diagnosis and therapy. In a recent study, researchers systematically evaluated the size-dependent biological profiles of three monodisperse drug-silica nanoconjugates to determine the optimum particle size for tissue penetration and tumor inhibition.

Reminding people of their religious belief system reduces hostility, study shows

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 01:52 PM PDT

New research may shed some light on religion's actual influence on believers -- and the news is positive. Researchers hypothesized that being reminded of religious beliefs would normally promote less hostile reactions to the kinds of threats in everyday life that usually heighten hostility. Across nine different experiments with 910 participants, the results consistently supported the hypothesis for Christians, Jews, Muslims and Hindus alike. The religiously reminded were significantly less hostile.

How can we be effectively warned not to give away our information online?

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 01:50 PM PDT

Two professors are figuring out the most effective ways we're influenced to give away personal information online and what warnings would be most effective to get us to stop.

New mechanism that can lead to blindness discovered

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 11:32 AM PDT

Scientists report an important scientific breakthrough: that a protein found in the retina plays an essential role in the function and survival of light-sensing cells that are required for vision. These findings could have a significant impact on our understanding of retinal degenerative diseases that cause blindness.

Risking your life without a second thought: Extreme altruism may be motivated by intuitive process

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 11:31 AM PDT

People who risk their lives to save strangers may do so without deliberation.

Simple steps can lead to safe sleep for infants

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 11:30 AM PDT

The number of infants who die each year from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) has decreased in recent decades as awareness of safe sleeping habits has increased. Yet each year, babies still die from sudden, unexplained causes.

Boosting heart's natural ability to recover after heart attack

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 11:28 AM PDT

Researchers have discovered that fibroblasts, which normally give rise to scar tissue after a heart attack, can be turned into endothelial cells, which generate blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to the injured regions of the heart, greatly reducing the damage done following heart attack.

Product placement can curb TV commercial audience loss by more than 10 percent

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 10:19 AM PDT

Coordinating product placement with advertising in the same television program can reduce audience loss over commercial breaks by 10 percent, according to a new study.

Treating sleep apnea in cardiac patients reduces hospital readmission

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:24 AM PDT

A study of hospitalized cardiac patients is the first to show that effective treatment with positive airway pressure therapy reduces 30-day hospital readmission rates and emergency department visits in patients with both heart disease and sleep apnea. The results underscore the importance of the 'Stop the Snore' campaign of the National Healthy Sleep Awareness Project.

Study questions 21-day quarantine period for Ebola

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:23 AM PDT

One of the tenets for minimizing the risk of spreading Ebola Virus has been a 21-day quarantine period for individuals who might have been exposed to the virus. But a new study suggests that 21 days might not be enough to completely prevent spread of the virus. Experts say there could be up to a 12 percent chance that someone could be infected even after the 21-day quarantine.

Researchers look to exploit females' natural resistance to infection

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:23 AM PDT

Researchers have linked increased resistance to bacterial pneumonia in female mice to an enzyme activated by the female sex hormone estrogen. An international team of scientists has shown that increased resistance to bacterial pneumonia in female mice is linked to the enzyme nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3). They also show that this enzyme is ultimately activated by the release of the female sex hormone estrogen.

German academies call for consequences from the Ebola virus epidemic

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:23 AM PDT

The Ebola virus is spreading rapidly and to an unexpected extent. The outbreak does not follow the patterns experienced in the past and the virus shows a new disease dynamic in regions where it has never been recorded before. For this reason, the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, acatech -- the German Academy of Science and Engineering, and the Union of the German Academies of Sciences and Humanities have presented a statement on the Ebola epidemic.

Researcher adds to evidence linking autism to air pollutants

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:21 AM PDT

Pollution's impact on autism rates in North Carolina is similar to results of previous pollution autism studies in California, a new study reports. This report is has added to a growing body of evidence that links autism to air pollutants such as those generated by cars and trucks.

Transforming safety net practices into patient-centered medical homes: Progress report

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:21 AM PDT

A recently concluded demonstration project made meaningful progress toward introducing a "patient-centered medical home" approach at "safety net" practices serving vulnerable and underserved populations.

Decreased length of ICU stay among improved patient outcomes from nurse-led initiatives at Philadelphia hospitals

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 08:21 AM PDT

Recent nurse-led initiatives addressing some of critical care's most pressing challenges resulted in shorter average lengths of stay and other positive patient and fiscal outcomes in seven Philadelphia-area hospitals.

Australians not prepared for 'dying with dignity': Report

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 07:18 AM PDT

The vast majority of Australians do not have a plan allowing them to 'die with dignity,' new research has found. Just 14 per cent of the population has an Advance Directive, or "living will," detailing their end of life treatment and care preferences, according to a new article.

Subsidies help breast cancer patients adhere to hormone therapy

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 07:18 AM PDT

A federal prescription-subsidy program for low-income women on Medicare significantly improved their adherence to hormone therapy to prevent the recurrence of breast cancer after surgery, an investigator reports.

Bullies in the workplace: Researcher examines struggles for victims to tell their story

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 07:13 AM PDT

Approximately 54 million workers are targeted by a bully during their careers. Instead of reporting it, a professor found several victims suffered silently because of the challenges they face telling their story.

Teens' science interest linked with knowledge, but only in wealthier nations

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 06:22 AM PDT

It seems logical that a student who is interested in science as an academic subject would also know a lot about science, but new findings show that this link depends on the overall wealth of the country that the teen calls home. The research suggests that individual science achievement may be influenced as much by broad national-level resources as it is by personal interest and motivation.

Risk factors for sexual assault identified, including age, alcohol consumption

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 06:22 AM PDT

Risk factors for sexual assault, including young age and alcohol consumption, must be addressed when considering preventative strategies, suggests a new study. Results of this study showed that 66% of the women interviewed were aged 15-24 years old and 75% had met the perpetrator before the sexual assault with nearly 50% reporting that the perpetrator was a current or former boyfriend, family member or someone they considered a friend.

Psychiatrist appointments hard to get, even for insured, study shows

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 06:22 AM PDT

Obtaining access to private outpatient psychiatric care in the Boston, Chicago and Houston metropolitan areas is difficult, even for those with private insurance or those willing to pay out of pocket. Researchers, who posed on the phone as patients seeking appointments with individual psychiatrists, encountered numerous obstacles, including unreturned calls, and met with success only 26 percent of the time.

Effects of high-risk Parkinson's mutation are reversible, study in animal model suggests

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 06:04 AM PDT

Researchers have found vital new evidence on how to target and reverse the effects caused by one of the most common genetic causes of Parkinson's.

New mechanism affecting cell migration found

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 06:04 AM PDT

Cell migration is important for development and physiology of multicellular organisms. During embryonic development individual cells and cell clusters can move over relatively long distances, and cell migration is also essential for wound healing and many immunological processes in adult animals. On the other hand, uncontrolled migration of malignant cells results in cancer invasion of metastasis.

Tool enhances social inclusion for people with autism

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 05:58 AM PDT

A tool designed to assist people with autism spectrum disorders has been developed. It works by adapting written documents into a format that is easier for them to read and understand, researchers report.

Gene variants implicated in ADHD identify attention, language

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 05:57 AM PDT

Are deficits in attention limited to those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or is there a spectrum of attention function in the general population? The answer to this question has implications for psychiatric diagnoses and perhaps for society, broadly. New work suggests that there is a spectrum of attention, hyperactivity/impulsiveness and language function in society, with varying degrees of these impairments associated with clusters of genes linked with the risk for ADHD.

Effect of the fall of the Berlin wall: Three hours of life per euro

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 05:57 AM PDT

Each additional euro eastern Germans received in benefits from pensions and public health insurance after reunification accounted for three additional hours of life expectancy, researchers report. From the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 through the start of the new millennium, life expectancy in eastern Germany increased substantially, they have found.

Two-faced gene: SIRT6 prevents some cancers but promotes sun-induced skin cancer

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 05:45 AM PDT

SIRT6 -— a protein that inhibits the growth of liver and colon cancers -— can promote the development of skin cancers by turning on an enzyme that increases inflammation, proliferation and survival of sun-damaged skin cells. This suggests that SIRT6 could provide a useful target for cancer prevention.

Prostate cancer's penchant for copper may be a fatal flaw

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 05:45 AM PDT

Like discriminating thieves, prostate cancer tumors scavenge and hoard copper that is an essential element in the body. But such avarice may be a fatal weakness, scientists report. Researchers have found a way to kill prostate cancer cells by delivering a trove of copper along with a drug that selectively destroys the diseased cells brimming with the mineral, leaving non-cancer cells healthy.

Partisan lenses: Beauty lies in your political affiliation

Posted: 15 Oct 2014 05:45 AM PDT

Have you ever noticed you find your candidate for political office more attractive than the opponent? New research shows you're not the only one.

How the fruit fly could help us sniff out drugs and bombs

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 06:18 PM PDT

A fly's sense of smell could be used in new technology to detect drugs and bombs, new research has found. Brain scientists were surprised to find that the 'nose' of fruit flies can identify odors from illicit drugs and explosive substances almost as accurately as wine odor, which the insects are naturally attracted to because it smells like their favorite food, fermenting fruit.

First report of long-term safety of human embryonic stem cells to treat human disease

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 06:17 PM PDT

The first evidence of the medium-term to long-term safety and tolerability of transplanting human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in humans has been revealed by scientists. hESC transplants used to treat severe vision loss in 18 patients with different forms of macular degeneration appeared safe up to 3 years post-transplant, and the technology restored some sight in more than half of the patients.

Obstetric quality of care measures at hospitals: Study indicates need for more

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 02:07 PM PDT

Rates for certain quality indicators and complications for mothers and newborns varied substantially between hospitals and were not correlated with performance measures designed to assess hospital-level obstetric quality of care, according to a study of data on more than 100,000 deliveries and term newborns from New York City hospitals.

Energy drinks may pose danger to public health, researchers warn

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 02:07 PM PDT

Increased consumption of energy drinks may pose danger to public health, especially among young people, warns a team of researchers. Energy drinks are non-alcoholic beverages that contain caffeine, vitamins, and sometimes other ingredients such as taurine, ginseng, and guarana. They are typically marketed as boosting energy and increasing physical and mental performance.

Millennials uneducated on important clothing care skills, study finds

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 01:04 PM PDT

A significant gap exists in the amount of 'common' clothes repair skills possessed by members of the baby boomer generation and millennials, research has found. The study found that many more of the baby boomer generation possess skills such as sewing, hemming, button repair and general laundry knowledge than Americans 18-33 years of age.

The neuroscience of 'holding it': Involuntary link in brain between pelvic floor, other muscles

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 12:25 PM PDT

Wherever you are right now: squeeze your glutes. Feel that? You just also contracted your pelvic floor too, whether you wanted to or not. Scientists have found themselves surprised to discover an involuntary link in the brain between the pelvic floor and other muscles.

Complementary methodologies for rare cancers: Worth discussing?

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 12:25 PM PDT

Rare Cancers Europe (RCE) is a multi stakeholder initiative promoted by ESMO dedicated to putting rare cancers on the European political agenda. In their consensus document, RCE argue that a higher degree of uncertainty should be accepted for regulatory as well as clinically informed decision-making in rare cancers, to overcome the limitations imposed by small population trials.

Frontline diagnosis and treatment of infant infections

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 11:27 AM PDT

Trained frontline health workers can identify most young infants with possible bacterial infections in low and middle income countries but also may diagnose infections in many uninfected young infants, according to a new study.

Policies on marketing gifts to medical students

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 11:27 AM PDT

Scientists have compared the 2011 survey results of a nationwide random sample of first and fourth year US medical students regarding interactions with and gifts from pharmaceutical marketing representatives.

New approaches needed for people with serious mental illnesses in criminal justice system

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 09:37 AM PDT

Responding to the large number of people with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system will require more than mental health services, according to a new report.

Want whiter teeth? Fruit mixture is not the answer

Posted: 14 Oct 2014 09:37 AM PDT

It may seem like an all-natural way to whiten teeth, but a study shows that a strawberry and baking soda mixture does little beyond cleaning those choppers. The main reason: Strawberries lack the chemicals known to cause deeper, longer lasting teeth whitening, researchers say.

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