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Sunday, October 26, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

ScienceDaily: Top Environment News

Hinode satellite captures X-ray footage of solar eclipse

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

The moon passed between the Earth and the sun on Thursday, Oct. 23. While avid stargazers in North America looked up to watch the spectacle, the best vantage point was several hundred miles above the North Pole. The Hinode spacecraft was in the right place at the right time to catch the solar eclipse. What's more, because of its vantage point Hinode witnessed a 'ring of fire' or annular eclipse.

Climate change caused by ocean, not just atmosphere

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Most of the concerns about climate change have focused on the amount of greenhouse gases that have been released into the atmosphere. A new study reveals another equally important factor in regulating the earth's climate.

Some like it loud: Warning coloration paved the way for louder, more complex calls in poisonous frogs

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Species of poison frogs that utilize bright warning coloration as protection from predators are more likely to develop louder, more complex calls than relatives that rely on camouflage. New research indicates that because these visual cues establish certain species as unsavory prey, they are free to make noisy calls in plain sight and better attract possible mates.

Law of the Sea authorizes animal tagging research without nations' consent, experts say

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Scientists who study migratory marine animals can rarely predict where the animals' paths will lead. Researchers now argue that coastal nations don't have precedent under the law of the sea to require scientists to seek advance permission to remotely track tagged animals who may enter their waters. Requiring advance consent undermines the goals of the law, which is meant to encourage scientific research for conservation of marine animals.

Options for climate change policy well characterized, study says

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Policy options for climate change risk management are straightforward and have well understood strengths and weaknesses, according to a new study.

Icelandic volcano sits on massive magma hot spot

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:20 AM PDT

New research shows that high mantle temperatures miles beneath the Earth's surface are essential for generating large amounts of magma. In fact, the scientists found that Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano lies directly above the hottest portion of the North Atlantic mantle plume.

New dent in HIV-1's armor: promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:19 AM PDT

A promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment has been found by researchers who have have uncovered a new protein that participates in active HIV replication. The new protein, called Ssu72, is part of a switch used to awaken HIV-1 (the most common type of HIV) from its slumber. More than 35 million people worldwide are living with HIV and about a million people die a year due to the disease.

Climate change impacts countered by stricter fisheries management

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 09:45 AM PDT

A new study has found that implementing stricter fisheries management overcame the expected detrimental effects of climate change disturbances in coral reef fisheries badly impacted by the 1997/98 El NiƱo.

Cat dentals fill you with dread?

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 08:19 AM PDT

Over 50 percent of final year veterinary students in the UK do not feel confident either in discussing orodental problems with clients or in performing a detailed examination of the oral cavity of their small animal patients, a survey published has found. Once in practice, things don't always improve and, anecdotally, it seems many vets dread feline dental procedures.

To wilt or not to wilt: New process explains why tomatoes are susceptible to a disease-causing fungus

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 07:13 AM PDT

Plant breeders have long identified and cultivated disease-resistant varieties. A research team has now revealed a new molecular mechanism for resistance and susceptibility to a common fungus that causes wilt in susceptible tomato plants.

Gene identified for immune system reset after infection

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 11:22 AM PDT

Researchers have uncovered the genes that are normally activated during recovery from bacterial infection. The finding, from C. elegans worms, could lead to ways to jumpstart this recovery process and possibly fend off autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders that can result from the body staying in attack mode for too long.

Top marine scientists call for action on 'invisible' fisheries

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 11:21 AM PDT

To protect our oceans from irreversible harm, governments, conservationists, and researchers around the world must address the enormous threat posed by unregulated and destructive fisheries, say top marine scientists.

Impact of invasive species varies with latitude, highlighting need for biogeographic perspective on invasions

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 08:08 AM PDT

In a large scale study of native and invasive Phargmites, researchers have found that the intensity of plant invasions by non-native species can vary considerably with changes in latitude.

Arrested development: Sediment wreaks havoc with fish larvae

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 07:10 AM PDT

Sediments associated with dredging and flood plumes could have a significant impact on fish populations by extending the time required for the development of their larvae, according to researchers.

Molecule could suppress immune system's 'friendly fire'

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 07:10 AM PDT

A molecule that could potentially accelerate clinical trials to combat autoimmune diseases has been identified by researchers. Autoimmune diseases occur when a group of immune cells called pro-inflammatory T-effector cells become sensitized to specific cells in the body, identifying them as foreign and attacking them as if they were invading bacteria. This 'friendly fire' goes unchecked due to the failing of another type of immune cell: called the T-reg, which controls T- effector cells, shutting them down when they are not needed.

New tool identifies high-priority dams for fish survival

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 07:09 AM PDT

Scientists have identified 181 California dams that may need to increase water flows to protect native fish downstream. The screening tool to select 'high-priority' dams may be particularly useful during drought years amid competing demands for water.

New policymaking tool for shift to renewable energy

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 06:19 AM PDT

Multiple pathways exist to a low greenhouse gas future, all involving increased efficiency and a dramatic shift in energy supply away from fossil fuels. A new tool, 'SWITCH,' enables policymakers and planners to assess the economic and environmental implications of different energy scenarios.

Study of mitochondrial DNA reveals how loggerhead turtle reached Mediterranean

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 06:10 AM PDT

To date, it was thought that the loggerhead turtle arrived to the Mediterranean from North America and the Caribbean after the last glacial period. However, latest scientific studies show that this marine species colonized the Mediterranean between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago, so the colonization event took place before the last glacial period.

Males of great bustard self-medicate to appear more attractive to females

Posted: 22 Oct 2014 11:36 AM PDT

Males of great bustard consume small doses of poison with a dual purpose: to eliminate internal parasites and, especially, to look healthier and stronger before females, allowing them to achieve a greater reproductive success. A team of researchers has now suggested for the first time that this function of self-medication could be a mechanism of sexual selection.

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