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Sunday, October 26, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Hinode satellite captures X-ray footage of solar eclipse

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

The moon passed between the Earth and the sun on Thursday, Oct. 23. While avid stargazers in North America looked up to watch the spectacle, the best vantage point was several hundred miles above the North Pole. The Hinode spacecraft was in the right place at the right time to catch the solar eclipse. What's more, because of its vantage point Hinode witnessed a 'ring of fire' or annular eclipse.

Prognostic factors identified for peripheral squamous cell carcinomas of the lung

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

A better survival outcome is associated with low blood levels of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, or absence of tumor invasion either into the space between the lungs and chest wall or into blood vessels of individuals with a peripheral squamous cell carcinoma, a type of non-small cell lung cancer.

Climate change caused by ocean, not just atmosphere

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Most of the concerns about climate change have focused on the amount of greenhouse gases that have been released into the atmosphere. A new study reveals another equally important factor in regulating the earth's climate.

Some like it loud: Warning coloration paved the way for louder, more complex calls in poisonous frogs

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Species of poison frogs that utilize bright warning coloration as protection from predators are more likely to develop louder, more complex calls than relatives that rely on camouflage. New research indicates that because these visual cues establish certain species as unsavory prey, they are free to make noisy calls in plain sight and better attract possible mates.

Law of the Sea authorizes animal tagging research without nations' consent, experts say

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

Scientists who study migratory marine animals can rarely predict where the animals' paths will lead. Researchers now argue that coastal nations don't have precedent under the law of the sea to require scientists to seek advance permission to remotely track tagged animals who may enter their waters. Requiring advance consent undermines the goals of the law, which is meant to encourage scientific research for conservation of marine animals.

Clues to genetics of congenital heart defects emerge from Down syndrome study

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

The largest genetic study of congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome found a connection to rare, large genetic deletions affecting cilia, scientists report. The high risk for congenital heart defects in this group provides a tool to identify changes in genes, both on and off chromosome 21, which are involved in abnormal heart development.

New hope for drug discovery in African sleeping sickness

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:27 PM PDT

African sleeping sickness, the neglected trop­ical dis­ease, affects tens of thou­sands of people and is mostly fatal. Now, new research has iden­ti­fied hun­dreds of chem­ical com­pounds that could lead to a cure.

The right to privacy in a big data world: When properly understood, privacy rules essential, experts say

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:25 PM PDT

In the digital age in which we live, monitoring, security breaches and hacks of sensitive data are all too common. It has been argued that privacy has no place in this big data environment and anything we put online can, and probably will, be seen by prying eyes. In a new article privacy law expert makes the case that when properly understood, privacy rules will be an essential and valuable part of our digital future.

New hope for potential prostate cancer patients

Posted: 25 Oct 2014 12:25 PM PDT

It has been more than 30 years since the last major advancement in prostate cancer screening technology, and the latest advancement is now available in the United States. It is estimated that 2014 will see more than 240,000 new cases of prostate cancer, and more than 29,000 deaths from the disease.

New findings will improve the sex lives of women with back problems

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:20 AM PDT

Newly published findings are giving women with bad backs renewed hope for better sex lives. The findings -- part of the first-ever study to document how the spine moves during sex -- outline which sex positions are best for women suffering from different types of low-back pain. The new recommendations follow on the heels of comparable guidelines for men released last month.

New compounds reduce debilitating inflammation

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:20 AM PDT

Two compounds that show promise in decreasing inflammation associated with diseases such as ulcerative colitis, arthritis and multiple sclerosis have been discovered by researchers. The compounds, dubbed OD36 and OD38, appear to curtail inflammation-triggering signals from RIPK2. RIPK2 is an enzyme that activates high-energy molecules to prompt the immune system to respond with inflammation.

Icelandic volcano sits on massive magma hot spot

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:20 AM PDT

New research shows that high mantle temperatures miles beneath the Earth's surface are essential for generating large amounts of magma. In fact, the scientists found that Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano lies directly above the hottest portion of the North Atlantic mantle plume.

US hospitals lack infection prevention personnel and resources to confront Ebola, survey shows

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:20 AM PDT

Only 6 percent of US hospitals are well-prepared to receive a patient with the Ebola virus, according to a survey of infection prevention experts at US hospitals conducted Oct. 10-15.

New dent in HIV-1's armor: promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 11:19 AM PDT

A promising target for HIV/AIDS treatment has been found by researchers who have have uncovered a new protein that participates in active HIV replication. The new protein, called Ssu72, is part of a switch used to awaken HIV-1 (the most common type of HIV) from its slumber. More than 35 million people worldwide are living with HIV and about a million people die a year due to the disease.

Toxin-secreting stem cells treat brain tumors, in mice

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 09:46 AM PDT

A new way to use stem cells in the fight against brain cancer has been devised by researchers. A team led by a neuroscientist who recently demonstrated the value of stem cells loaded with cancer-killing herpes viruses now has a way to genetically engineer stem cells so that they can produce and secrete tumor-killing toxins.

Climate change impacts countered by stricter fisheries management

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 09:45 AM PDT

A new study has found that implementing stricter fisheries management overcame the expected detrimental effects of climate change disturbances in coral reef fisheries badly impacted by the 1997/98 El NiƱo.

Jetpacks and flamethrowers: Team infuses science into 'Minecraft' modification

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 09:07 AM PDT

The 3-D world of the popular "Minecraft" video game just became more entertaining, perilous and educational, thanks to a comprehensive code modification kit, "Polycraft World."

Cat dentals fill you with dread?

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 08:19 AM PDT

Over 50 percent of final year veterinary students in the UK do not feel confident either in discussing orodental problems with clients or in performing a detailed examination of the oral cavity of their small animal patients, a survey published has found. Once in practice, things don't always improve and, anecdotally, it seems many vets dread feline dental procedures.

Shutting off blood supply to extremity to protect heart

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 07:12 AM PDT

Shutting off the blood supply to an arm or leg before cardiac surgery protects the heart during the operation, a study shows. "The heart muscle of the patients who had restricted blood flow to their arm before surgery were able to maintain the same level of energy production during the whole operation, while heart muscle from the other patients' hearts was not. This may be important because heart tissue is dependent on energy to survive, as well as to repair injuries the cells may have endured during surgery," an investigator says.

High-dose vitamin D not effective for helping women with repeat reproductive tract infections

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 07:12 AM PDT

Vitamin D appears not to be effective for treating repeat occurrences of bacterial vaginosis (BV), the most common reproductive infection among women worldwide. While earlier studies have shown a correlation between low vitamin D levels and BV, new research shows the difficult-to-treat and frequently symptom-free reproductive infection isn't altered by high dose vitamin D supplements.

Pleasure of learning new words

Posted: 24 Oct 2014 05:25 AM PDT

From our very first years, we are intrinsically motivated to learn new words and their meanings. First language acquisition occurs within a permanent emotional interaction between parents and children. However, the exact mechanism behind the human drive to acquire communicative linguistic skills is yet to be established.

Roman-Britons had less gum disease than modern Britons

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 04:35 PM PDT

The Roman-British population from c. 200-400 AD appears to have had far less gum disease than we have today, according to a study of skulls by a periodontist. The surprise findings provide further evidence that modern habits like smoking can be damaging to oral health.

New drug could help in battle against cervical cancer

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 04:34 PM PDT

Few patients with recurrent or secondary cervical cancer have tumour shrinkage after conventional chemotherapy, and life expectancy is usually less than one year. An academic study into effects of cediranib drug in chemotherapy treatment of cervical cancer shows the drug to standard chemotherapy might be beneficial for patients with metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer.

People who develop kidney stones may face increased bone fracture risk

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 04:33 PM PDT

People who developed kidney or urinary tract stones were more likely to later experience bone fractures, a study has shown. The median time between diagnosis and bone fracture was 10 years.

Mother's gestational diabetes linked to daughters being overweight later

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 12:50 PM PDT

Women who developed gestational diabetes and were overweight before pregnancy were at a higher risk of having daughters who were obese later in childhood, according to new research. Based on long-term research that included a multi-ethnic cohort of 421 girls and their mothers, the study is among the first to directly link maternal hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) to offspring being overweight later.

Sunshine may slow weight gain, diabetes onset, study suggests

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 12:50 PM PDT

Exposure to moderate amounts of sunshine may slow the development of obesity and diabetes, a study in mice suggests. The researchers showed that shining UV light at overfed mice slowed their weight gain. The mice displayed fewer of the warning signs linked to diabetes, such as abnormal glucose levels and resistance to insulin.

How protein ensures reproductive success

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 11:22 AM PDT

An international team of researchers has discovered how a single protein, called PP4, oversees the processing of DNA during sperm and egg generation for successful fertilization. This protein's activity becomes even more paramount during aging. The study may one day help scientists to understand the mechanisms underlying age-related fertility declines in humans.

Gene identified for immune system reset after infection

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 11:22 AM PDT

Researchers have uncovered the genes that are normally activated during recovery from bacterial infection. The finding, from C. elegans worms, could lead to ways to jumpstart this recovery process and possibly fend off autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory disorders that can result from the body staying in attack mode for too long.

Top marine scientists call for action on 'invisible' fisheries

Posted: 23 Oct 2014 11:21 AM PDT

To protect our oceans from irreversible harm, governments, conservationists, and researchers around the world must address the enormous threat posed by unregulated and destructive fisheries, say top marine scientists.

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