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Thursday, January 8, 2015

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

ScienceDaily: Top Science News

Observatories take an unprecedented look into superstar Eta Carinae

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 01:23 PM PST

New findings include Hubble Space Telescope images that show decade-old shells of ionized gas racing away from the Superstar Eta Carinae at a million miles an hour, and new 3-D models that reveal never-before-seen features of the stars' interactions.

Wave energy integration costs should compare favorably to other energy sources

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 11:08 AM PST

A new analysis suggests that large-scale wave energy systems developed in the Pacific Northwest should be comparatively steady, dependable and able to be integrated into the overall energy grid at lower costs than some other forms of alternative energy, including wind power.

Broad immune response may be needed to destroy latent HIV

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 10:39 AM PST

A major barrier to finding a cure for HIV/AIDS is the presence of latent HIV in the cells of chronically infected individuals. But researchers may have now pinpointed a strategy for eliminating the residual virus.

Which fossil fuel reserves must stay in the ground to avoid dangerous climate change?

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 10:14 AM PST

A third of oil reserves, half of gas reserves and over 80% of current coal reserves globally should remain in the ground and not be used before 2050 if global warming is to stay below the 2°C target agreed by policy makers, according to new research.

Study of ancient dogs in the Americas yields insights into human, dog migration

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 09:39 AM PST

A new study suggests that dogs may have first successfully migrated to the Americas only about 10,000 years ago, thousands of years after the first human migrants crossed a land bridge from Siberia to North America.

Coral reefs threatened by a deadly combination of changing ocean conditions

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 09:31 AM PST

The lowering of the ocean's pH is making it harder for corals to grow their skeletons and easier for bioeroding organisms to tear them down. Erosion rates increase tenfold in areas where corals are also exposed to high levels of nutrients, according to a new study. As sea level rises, these reefs may have a harder time growing toward the ocean surface, where they get sunlight they need to survive.

Brain imaging may help predict future behavior

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 09:29 AM PST

Noninvasive brain scans have led to basic science discoveries about the human brain, but they've had only limited impacts on people's day-to-day lives. A review article highlights a number of recent studies showing that brain imaging can help predict an individual's future learning, criminality, health-related behaviors, and response to drug or behavioral treatments. The technology may offer opportunities to personalize educational and clinical practices.

Sticking to lifestyle guidelines may reduce risk for certain cancers and for overall mortality

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 09:24 AM PST

Following cancer prevention guidelines from the American Cancer Society may modestly reduce your overall risk of developing cancer and have a greater impact on reducing your overall risk of dying early, a study of nearly a half-million Americans has found. Having a healthy body weight and staying active appeared to have the most positive impact.

Forget the selfish gene: Evolution of life is driven by the selfish ribosome, research suggests

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 07:14 AM PST

Since the discovery of how DNA encodes genetic information, most research on the evolution of life has focused on genes. According to the 'selfish gene' theory, cells and organisms exist simply as packages to protect and transmit genes. New research challenges this idea, proposing instead that if anything is 'selfish' it must be the ribosome. That upends everything we think we know about the evolution of life and, in fact, the function of ribosomes themselves.

Responsive material could be the 'golden ticket' of sensing

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 05:22 AM PST

A new responsive material 'glued' together with short strands of DNA, and capable of translating thermal and chemical signals into visible physical changes, could underpin a new class of biosensors or drug delivery systems.

Networks of the brain reflect the individual gender identity

Posted: 07 Jan 2015 05:21 AM PST

Our sense of belonging to the male or female gender is an inherent component of the human identity perception. As a general rule, gender identity and physical sex coincide. If this is not the case, one refers to trans-identity or transsexuality. In a current study, brain researchers were able to demonstrate that the very personal gender identity of every human being is reflected and verifiable in the cross-links between brain regions.

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