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Sunday, November 23, 2014

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

ScienceDaily: Most Popular News

Deep-Earth carbon offers clues on origin of life: New organic carbon species linked to formation of diamonds -- and life itself

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 03:33 PM PST

Scientists reveal details about carbon deep beneath Earth's surface and suggest ways it might have influenced the history of life on the planet.

Why some people may be immune to HIV-1: Clues

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:17 AM PST

Doctors have long been mystified as to why HIV-1 rapidly sickens some individuals, while in others the virus has difficulties gaining a foothold. Now, a study of genetic variation in HIV-1 and in the cells it infects has uncovered a chink in HIV-1's armor that may, at least in part, explain the puzzling difference -- and potentially open the door to new treatments.

Dizzying heights: Prehistoric farming on the 'roof of the world'

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 11:17 AM PST

Archaeological findings pose questions about genetic resistance in humans to altitude sickness and genetic response in crop plants to flowering times and ultraviolet radiation tolerance. Archaeological discoveries from the 'roof of the world' on the Tibetan Plateau indicate that from 3,600 years ago, crop growing and the raising of livestock was taking place year-round at hitherto unprecedented altitudes.

It's filamentary: How galaxies evolve in the cosmic web

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 10:34 AM PST

How do galaxies like our Milky Way form, and just how do they evolve? Are galaxies affected by their surrounding environment? Astronomers now propose some answers. The researchers highlight the role of the 'cosmic web' -- a large-scale web-like structure comprised of galaxies -- on the evolution of galaxies that took place in the distant universe, a few billion years after the Big Bang.

Quantum mechanical calculations reveal the hidden states of enzyme active sites

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 10:34 AM PST

Enzymes carry out fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and respiration, with the help of clusters of metal atoms as 'active' sites. But scientists lack basic information about their function because the states thought to be critical to their chemical abilities cannot be experimentally observed. Now, researchers have reported the first direct observation of the electronic states of iron-sulfur clusters, common to many enzyme active sites.

Darwin 2.0: New theory on speciation, diversity

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 09:32 AM PST

It has long been thought that dramatic changes in a landscape like the formation of the Andes Mountain range or the Amazon River is the main driver that initiates species to diverge. However, a recent study shows that speciation occurred much later than these dramatic geographical changes. Researchers have found that time and a species' ability to move play greater parts in the process of speciation.

Riddle of the missing stars: Hubble observations cast further doubt on how globular clusters formed

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 08:32 AM PST

Thanks to the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, some of the most mysterious cosmic residents have just become even more puzzling. New observations of globular clusters in a small galaxy show they are very similar to those found in the Milky Way, and so must have formed in a similar way.

Laser from a plane discovers Roman goldmines in Spain

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 05:21 AM PST

Hidden under the vegetation and crops of the Eria Valley, in León (Spain), there is a gold mining network created by the Romans two thousand years ago, as well as complex hydraulic works, such as river diversions, to divert water to the mines of the precious metal. Researchers made the discovery from the air with an airborne laser teledetection system.

Out of India: Finding the origins of horses, rhinos

Posted: 20 Nov 2014 05:17 AM PST

Working at the edge of a coal mine in India, a team of researchers has filled in a major gap in science's understanding of the evolution of a group of animals that includes horses and rhinos. That group likely originated on the subcontinent when it was still an island headed swiftly for collision with Asia, the researchers report.

'Aquatic osteoporosis' jellifying lakes

Posted: 19 Nov 2014 09:54 AM PST

A plague of "aquatic osteoporosis" is spreading throughout many North American soft-water lakes due to declining calcium levels in the water and hindering the survival of some organisms. The reduced calcium availability is hindering the survival of aquatic organisms with high calcium requirements and promoting the growth of nutrient-poor, jelly-clad animals.

Viking fortress discovery: Archaeological dating results

Posted: 18 Nov 2014 07:56 AM PST

In September 2014, archaeologists announced the discovery of a Viking fortress in a field belonging to Vallø Manor, located west of Køge on the east coast of Sealand. This was the first discovery of its kind in Denmark in over 60 years. Since then, archaeologists have been waiting impatiently for the results of the dating of the fortress. Now the first results are available.

Physicists suggest new way to detect dark matter

Posted: 18 Nov 2014 07:56 AM PST

For years physicists have been looking for the universe's elusive dark matter, but so far no one has seen any trace of it. Maybe we are looking in the wrong place? Now physicists propose a new technique to detect dark matter.

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