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Sunday, October 5, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Lack of adherence to safe handling guidelines for administration of antineoplastic drugs found through study

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:43 PM PDT

Recommended safe handling practices for workers who administer antineoplastic drugs in healthcare settings are not always followed, a study has found.

RCas9: A programmable RNA editing tool

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:43 PM PDT

A powerful scientific tool for editing the DNA instructions in a genome can now also be applied to RNA as researchers have demonstrated a means by which the CRISPR/Cas9 protein complex can be programmed to recognize and cleave RNA at sequence-specific target sites.

Implications of ipsilateral spatial neglect after stroke explored by stroke researchers

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:43 PM PDT

Stroke researchers have confirmed that damage to the right frontal-subcortical network may cause ipsilateral spatial neglect. More patients with ipsilateral neglect had frontal subcortical damage than anticipated -- 83 percent vs the expected 27 percent. A difference was also seen in spatial bias, ie, the type of spatial errors among this group tended to be 'where'(perceptual-attentional) rather than 'aiming' (motor-intentional) errors.

Neurobiological basis of human-pet relationship: Mothers' brains respond differntly to images of their child and their dog

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:43 PM PDT

How closely does the relationship between people and their non-human companions mirror the parent-child relationship? Researchers makes a contribution to answering this complex question by investigating differences in how important brain structures are activated when women view images of their children and of their own dogs.

Pain words stand out more for those experiencing it

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:57 AM PDT

Ache, agony, distress and pain draw more attention than non-pain related words when it comes to people who suffer from chronic pain, a research using state-of-the-art eye-tracking technology has found.

Healthy knowledge management and social networking

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:57 AM PDT

Social network analysis could improve knowledge sharing in the health-care sector, according to new research.

Stochastic variations of migration speed between cells in clonal populations

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:54 AM PDT

Microfluidic tools for precision measurements of cell migration speed reveal that migratory speed of individual cells changes stochastically from parent cells to their descendants, while the average speed of the cell population remains constant through successive generations. This finding is important in the context of cancer treatment, where treatments are sought to slow down the invasion of cancer cells.

Viral infection may trigger childhood diabetes in utero

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:54 AM PDT

A likely trigger for juvenile diabetes before birth has been identified by researchers who have put forth evidence that the autoimmune disease is initiated in utero. Women who contract a viral infection during pregnancy transmit viruses to their genetically susceptible fetuses, sparking the development of type 1 diabetes, they propose.

New discovery in the microbiology of serious human disease

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:53 AM PDT

Previously undiscovered secrets of how human cells interact with a bacterium which causes a serious human disease have been revealed in new research by microbiologists.

New educational modules harness power of e-learning for pancreatic cancer education

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:53 AM PDT

How can healthcare professionals stay on top of the ever-evolving field of pancreatic cancer? The ePOSSOM (ecancer POst Graduate School of Surgery Surgical Oncology Modules) project has launched a series of innovative educational modules to meet the educational needs of post-graduate surgical trainees looking to extend their knowledge on pancreatic cancer.

A family meal a day may keep obesity away

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:52 AM PDT

Increasing rates of adolescent obesity and the likelihood that obesity will carry forward into adulthood, have led to various preventive initiatives. It has been suggested that family meals, which tend to include fruits, vegetables, calcium, and whole grains, could be protective against obesity.  In a new study, researchers studied whether frequent family meals during adolescence were protective for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

Social networks can strengthen knowledge-sharing

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:51 AM PDT

Contrary to the notion that social networks are time-wasters, they could improve project management and the spread of specialized knowledge in the healthcare sector and possibly other large organizations, according to new research.

Intestinal failure, associated liver disease: New position paper

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:51 AM PDT

Children who require long-term parenteral nutrition are at risk of a potentially devastating complication called intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IAFLD). The diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of IAFLD are discussed in a new position paper.

Study may lead to early detection, better outcomes for lymphedema patients

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 10:51 AM PDT

A new study may lead to earlier detection and better outcomes for the 20-30 percent of breast cancer patients with lymphedema, the painful and stigmatizing arm swelling that often results from treatment.

Why we can't tell a Hollywood heartthrob from his stunt double

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:22 AM PDT

Johnny Depp has an unforgettable face. Tony Angelotti, his stunt double in 'Pirates of the Caribbean,' does not. So why is it that when they're swashbuckling on screen, audiences worldwide see them both as the same person? Scientists have pinpointed the brain mechanism by which we latch on to a particular face even when it changes.

Help explain 'chemo brain' through snail research

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:20 AM PDT

It is estimated that as many as half of patients taking cancer drugs experience a decrease in mental sharpness. While there have been many theories, what causes "chemo brain" has eluded scientists.

Hill training benefits distance runners

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 06:20 AM PDT

Most running magazines contain articles endorsing hill training for serious long distance runners, "but there was virtually no research to support it," explained one researcher. As part of his doctoral work in health and nutritional sciences, he confirmed that running on a 10 percent incline can improve the overall performance of long distance runners.

Too many stroke patients miss window to regain crucial functions

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 03:45 AM PDT

Too many stroke patients in Canada are not getting the rehabilitation they need to return to a healthy, active life, according to a new study. The research findings strongly suggest that such decisions are being made based on what services are available in the health system rather than what patients really need.

Genetic test reveals risk of atrial fibrillation, stroke

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 03:44 AM PDT

Many of those who are genetically predisposed to develop atrial fibrillation, which dramatically raises the risk of stroke, can be identified with a blood test, new research shows.

Hunting viruses that play hide and seek

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 03:44 AM PDT

Every year, two million children die of acute respiratory infections. Among the culprits are several different viruses, one of which your child almost certainly has had without you or the doctors ever knowing it. The good news is that researchers believe you are most likely immune after having had this virus just once.

New materials for better, stronger and cheaper dental implants

Posted: 03 Oct 2014 03:44 AM PDT

A ceramic polymer blend has been developed by researchers to reduce costs of dental implants. "By optimizing the geometry and consistency of the implants we can ensure that they remain in place longer, but with a lower cost than the titanium implant," said the project collaborator in charge of industrial design.

High alcohol intake linked to heightened HPV infection risk in men

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 07:12 PM PDT

A high alcohol intake is linked to a heightened risk of human papillomavirus infection among men, suggests research. The findings seem to be independent of other risk factors for the infection, such as number of sexual partners and smoking.

Toxicity test technology hits the market

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 07:11 PM PDT

A technique for high throughput screening of substances that could cause DNA damage has been developed by scientists. The technology allows for testing of drugs and cosmetics that could pose a risk to human health, and assesses damage done to DNA, while reducing reliance on animal testing, researchers say.

Second case of apparent HIV 'cure' in baby followed by reappearance of virus

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 07:11 PM PDT

A new case report is the second report of apparent viral remission followed by rebound in a baby given early ART treatment, after the case of the 'Mississippi baby' received widespread attention in the last year.

Ovarian tissue, egg freezing should be made widely available to prevent age-related infertility, say leading fertility experts

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 07:11 PM PDT

Over the past 10 years, researchers have restored the fertility of female cancer patients who would otherwise have been left infertile after treatment, having been offered oocyte cryopreservation. The technique enables women to freeze their eggs and use them at a later time to conceive a child. Several babies have been born to cancer patients using this technique, which is no longer classed as experimental.

From surgery to recovery: Athletes and ACLs

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 03:39 PM PDT

National Hockey League players have the best chance to return to their sport after an ACL tear, and snowboarders have the lowest rate of returning to their sport, according to a series of papers.

Improving cultural sensitivity in cognition testing

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 03:39 PM PDT

The signs of dementia are the same in any language. And symptoms of traumatic brain injury are similar regardless of socioeconomic status or place of birth. But the tools neuropsychologists use to assess and measure cognitive ability are not necessarily standardized from one country to another – or even from one neighborhood to another nearby. Researchers are working to change that.

Blood tests predict kidney disease patients' risk of developing heart failure

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 03:39 PM PDT

Kidney disease patients with detectable levels of a blood protein called high-sensitivity troponin T had up to a 5-fold increased risk of developing heart failure, research shows. Those with high levels of a protein called N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide had a nearly 10-fold increased risk of developing heart failure.

Exercise linked with improved physical, mental health among dialysis patients

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 03:39 PM PDT

Among dialysis patients, aerobic activity was linked positively with health-related quality of life and inversely with depressive symptoms and premature death. In general, patients had higher aerobic activity levels if they were treated in dialysis clinics offering exercise programs.

New pathway linking the brain to high blood pressure identified

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 03:39 PM PDT

New research has uncovered a new pathway by which the brain uses an unusual steroid to control blood pressure. The study suggests new approaches for treating high blood pressure and heart failure.

Osteoporosis treatment may also benefit breast cancer patients

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 01:27 PM PDT

Treatment approaches to reduce the risk of bone metastasis associated with breast cancer may be one step closer to becoming a reality. According to a study, findings show that medication used to treat bone deterioration in post-menopausal women may also slow skeletal metastasis caused from breast cancer. This study is among the first to link bisphosphonate use with improved survival in women with breast cancer.

'Mini-stroke' may lead to post-traumatic stress disorder

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 01:27 PM PDT

About 30 percent of transient ischemic attack or 'mini-stroke' patients had symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results from a new study show. Those with PTSD had more depression, anxiety and reduced mental and physical quality of life. Patients overestimating their stroke risk and who don't cope with their mini-stroke well are at higher risk to develop PTSD.

Blackflies may be responsible for spreading nodding syndrome

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 01:27 PM PDT

Despite decades of research, scientists have yet to pinpoint the exact cause of nodding syndrome (NS), a disabling disease affecting African children. A new report suggests that blackflies infected with the parasite Onchocerca volvulus may be capable of passing on a secondary pathogen that is to blame for the spread of the disease. When present, the first indication of the disease is an involuntary nodding of the head, followed by epileptic seizures. The condition can cause cognitive deterioration, stunted growth, and in some cases, death.

Women face dishonesty more often than men during negotiations

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 01:26 PM PDT

Women in business negotiations face more deceit than men, according to new research. "We found that men and women alike were targeting women with more deception than men," said a co-author of the new research. "It was interesting that men and women alike tried to deceive women in negotiations."

Software for Google glass that provides captions for hard-of-hearing users

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 01:26 PM PDT

Speech-to-text software for Google Glass has been created that helps hard-of-hearing users with everyday conversations. A hard-of-hearing person wears Glass while a second person speaks directly into a smartphone. The speech is converted to text, sent to Glass and displayed on its heads-up display.

Gene can predict aggressive prostate cancer at diagnosis

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 01:26 PM PDT

A biomarker living next door to the KLK3 gene can predict which GS7 prostate cancer patients will have a more aggressive form of cancer, researchers have found.

HIV pandemic's origins located

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 11:17 AM PDT

The present HIV pandemic almost certainly originated in Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, according to a new study. An international team of scientists reconstructed the genetic history of the HIV-1 group M pandemic, which saw HIV spread across Africa and around the world. Their analysis suggests that the common ancestor of group M is likely to have emerged in Kinshasa around 1920.

Factors associated with childhood brain tumors identified

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 11:16 AM PDT

Older parents, birth defects, maternal nutrition and childhood exposure to CT scans and pesticides are increasingly being associated with brain tumors in children, according to new research.

Ancient protein-making enzyme moonlights as DNA protector

Posted: 02 Oct 2014 09:30 AM PDT

An enzyme best known for its fundamental role in building proteins has a second major function -- to protect DNA during times of cellular stress -- has been found by scientists. The finding, remarkable on a basic science level, also points the way to possible therapeutic applications.

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