Referral Banners

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

An apple a day could keep obesity away

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 03:11 PM PDT

Nondigestible compounds in apples -- specifically, Granny Smith apples -- may help prevent disorders associated with obesity, scientists have concluded. "We know that, in general, apples are a good source of these nondigestible compounds but there are differences in varieties," said the study's lead researcher. "Results from this study will help consumers to discriminate between apple varieties that can aid in the fight against obesity."

New transparent nanoscintillators for radiation detection developed

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 03:05 PM PDT

Tadiation detection properties have been identified in a light-emitting nanostructure made in a new way from two of the least expensive rare earth elements. The new material is made from two of the least expensive rare earth elements, so it is cost-effective, estimated at a little over $7 per cm3.

Single-neuron 'hub' orchestrates activity of an entire brain circuit

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 12:47 PM PDT

New research makes a major contribution to efforts to navigate the brain, offering a precise model of the organization of developing neuronal circuits. If researchers can further identify the cellular type of 'hub neurons,' it may be possible to reproduce them in vitro and transplant them into aged or damaged brain circuitries in order to recover functionality.

Glaciers in the Grand Canyon of Mars?

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 12:42 PM PDT

For decades, planetary geologists have speculated that glaciers might once have crept through Valles Marineris, the 2000-mile-long chasm that constitutes the Grand Canyon of Mars. Using satellite images, researchers have identified features that might have been carved by past glaciers as they flowed through the canyons; however, these observations have remained highly controversial and contested.

Spastic paraplegia: New light shed on cause

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 12:39 PM PDT

A gene mutation linked to hereditary spastic paraplegia, a disabling neurological disorder, interferes with the normal breakdown of triglyceride fat molecules in the brain, scientists have found. The researchers found large droplets of triglycerides within the neurons of mice modeling the disease.

Causes of California drought linked to climate change

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 10:35 AM PDT

The extreme atmospheric conditions associated with California's crippling drought are far more likely to occur under today's global warming conditions than in the climate that existed before humans emitted large amounts of greenhouse gases, scientists say.

In-flight sensor tests a step toward structural health monitoring for safer flights

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 09:39 AM PDT

A flight test program is underway on nine commercial aircraft flying regular routes that are carrying sensors to monitor their structural health, alongside their routine maintenance. The flight tests are part of a Federal Aviation Administration certification process that will make the sensors widely available to U.S. airlines.

Cassini watches mysterious feature evolve in hydrocarbon sea on Saturn's moon Titan

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 09:32 AM PDT

NASA's Cassini spacecraft is monitoring the evolution of a mysterious feature in a large hydrocarbon sea on Saturn's moon Titan. The feature covers an area of about 100 square miles (260 square kilometers) in Ligeia Mare, one of the largest seas on Titan. It has now been observed twice by Cassini's radar experiment, but its appearance changed between the two apparitions.

DNA signature found in Ice Storm babies: Prenatal maternal stress exposure to natural disasters predicts epigenetic profile of offspring

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 07:53 AM PDT

The number of days an expectant mother was deprived of electricity during Quebec's Ice Storm in 1998 predicts the epigenetic profile of her child, a new study finds.

Ancient human genome from southern Africa throws light on our origins

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 07:53 AM PDT

The skeleton of a man who lived 2,330 years ago in the southernmost tip of Africa tells us about ourselves as humans, and throws some light on our earliest common genetic ancestry. The man's genome was sequenced and shown to be one of the 'earliest diverged' -- oldest in genetic terms -- found to-date in a region where modern humans are believed to have originated roughly 200,000 years ago.

Harvesting energy from walking around: Shoe insole charges AAA and watch batteries

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 07:52 AM PDT

A device that fits inside a pair of shoes harvests the energy left-over when someone walks. This energy is then stored in AAA or watch batteries.

Dolphins are attracted to magnets: Add dolphins to the list of magnetosensitive animals, French researchers say

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 07:52 AM PDT

Add dolphins to the list of magnetosensitive animals, French researchers say. Dolphins are indeed sensitive to magnetic stimuli, as they behave differently when swimming near magnetized objects.

Protein that causes frontotemporal dementia also implicated in Alzheimer's disease

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:40 AM PDT

Low levels of the naturally occurring protein progranulin exacerbate cellular and cognitive dysfunction, while raising levels can prevent abnormalities in an Alzheimer's model.

Smart, eco-friendly new battery made of seeds and pine resin

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:40 AM PDT

Present-day lithium batteries are efficient but involve a range of resource and environmental problems. Using materials from alfalfa (lucerne seed) and pine resin and a clever recycling strategy, researchers have now come up with a highly interesting alternative.

Scientists make droplets move on their own

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:38 AM PDT

Droplets are simple spheres of fluid, not normally considered capable of doing anything on their own. But now researchers have made droplets of alcohol move through water. In the future, such moving droplets may deliver medicines.

Signature of aging in brain: Researchers suggest that the brain's 'immunological age' is what counts

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:38 AM PDT

Evidence of a unique 'signature' that may be the 'missing link' between cognitive decline and aging has been found by researchers. The scientists believe that this discovery may lead, in the future, to treatments that can slow or reverse cognitive decline in older people.

Predicting landslides with light

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:38 AM PDT

A team of researchers in Italy are expanding the reach of optical fiber sensors 'to the hills' by embedding them in shallow trenches within slopes to detect and monitor both large landslides and slow slope movements.

'Autotune' software to make it quicker, easier and cheaper to model energy use of buildings

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:37 AM PDT

Building Energy Modeling uses computer simulations to estimate energy use and guide the design of new buildings as well as energy improvements to existing buildings.

Tooth buried in bone shows prehistoric predators tangled across land, sea

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:06 AM PDT

Before dinosaurs, it was thought the top aquatic and terrestrial predators didn't often interact. But researchers have discovered that the smaller of the two apex predators was potentially targeting the larger animal.

Simulations reveal an unusual death for ancient stars

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:05 AM PDT

Certain primordial stars -- between 55,000 and 56,000 times the mass of our sun, or solar masses -- may have died unusually. In death, these objects -- among the universe's first generation of stars -- would have exploded as supernovae and burned completely, leaving no remnant black hole behind.

Hand size appears to stay constant, providing natural 'ruler'

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:05 AM PDT

People tend to perceive their dominant hand as staying relatively the same size even when it's magnified, lending support to the idea that we use our hand as a constant perceptual 'ruler' to measure the world around us.

Greenland Ice Sheet more vulnerable to climate change than previously thought

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:05 AM PDT

A new study finds that the Greenland Ice Sheet, which covers 1.7 million square kilometers and contains enough ice to raise sea levels worldwide by seven meters, is less stable and more sensitive to climate change than previously thought.

Climate change appears a mixed bag for common frog

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:05 AM PDT

After warmer winters, wood frogs breed earlier and produce fewer eggs, a researcher has found. The same study also found that frogs produce more eggs during winters with more rain and snow.

new role for estrogen in pathology of breast cancer discovered

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:05 AM PDT

A previously unknown mechanism by which estrogen prepares cells to divide, grow and, in the case of estrogen-positive breast cancers, resist cancer drugs, has been discovered in a recent study. The researchers say the work reveals new targets for breast cancer therapy and will help doctors predict which patients need the most aggressive treatment.

On the trail of the truffle flavor

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:04 AM PDT

Truffles, along with caviar, are among the most expensive foods in the world. Because they grow underground, people use trained dogs or pigs to find them. But the distinctive smell of truffles is not only of interest to gourmets. A group of scientists have discovered that the smell of white truffles is largely produced by soil bacteria which are trapped inside truffle fruiting bodies.

Ultra-fast semiconductor nano-lasers turn on and off faster than any before

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:03 AM PDT

Physicist have develop ultra-fast semiconductor nano-lasers. One thousand billion operations per second – this peak value has now been achieved by semiconductor nano-lasers.

Investigating 'underground' habitat of Listeria bacteria

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:03 AM PDT

The literature describes Listeria as ubiquitous bacteria with widespread occurrence. Yet they only become a problem for humans and animals when they contaminate food processing facilities, multiply, and enter the food chain in high concentrations. An infection with Listeria monocytogenes can even be fatal for humans or animals with weakened immune systems.

Mimicking brain cells to boost computer memory power

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:03 AM PDT

Researchers have brought ultra-fast, nano-scale data storage within striking reach, using technology that mimics the human brain. The researchers have built a novel nano-structure that offers a new platform for the development of highly stable and reliable nanoscale memory devices.

Mesothelioma: New Findings On Treatment Options

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:03 AM PDT

Treating patients with high-dose radiotherapy after chemotherapy and surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma does not achieve improvements in local relapse and overall survival, according to new data from a prospective randomized phase II trial.

Cells from placentas safe for patients with multiple sclerosis, study shows

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 06:02 AM PDT

Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) were able to safely tolerate treatment with cells cultured from human placental tissue, according to a study. "This is the first time placenta-derived cells have been tested as a possible therapy for multiple sclerosis," said the lead investigator of the study. "The next step will be to study larger numbers of MS patients to assess efficacy of the cells, but we could be looking at a new frontier in treatment for the disease."

'Cloaking' device uses ordinary lenses to hide objects across range of angles

Posted: 29 Sep 2014 05:52 AM PDT

Inspired perhaps by Harry Potter's invisibility cloak, scientists have recently developed several ways -- some simple and some involving new technologies -- to hide objects from view. The latest effort not only overcomes some of the limitations of previous devices, but it uses inexpensive, readily available materials in a novel configuration.

Human genome was shaped by an evolutionary arms race with itself

Posted: 28 Sep 2014 12:47 PM PDT

An evolutionary arms race between rival elements within the genomes of primates drove the evolution of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate the activity of genes in every cell of our bodies, researach shows. The arms race is between mobile DNA sequences known as 'retrotransposons' (a.k.a. 'jumping genes') and the genes that have evolved to control them.

Early sign of pancreatic cancer identified by researchers

Posted: 28 Sep 2014 12:47 PM PDT

A sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer –- an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs before the disease is diagnosed and symptoms appear -- has been identified by a team of researchers. Although the increase isn't large enough to be the basis of a new test for early detection of the disease, the findings will help researchers better understand how pancreatic cancer affects the rest of the body.

Children with autism more sedentary than their peers, study shows

Posted: 26 Sep 2014 11:10 AM PDT

Children with autism are more sedentary than their typically-developing peers, a study shows, averaging 50 minutes less a day of moderate physical activity and 70 minutes more each day sitting.

No comments: