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Monday, September 29, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Human genome was shaped by an evolutionary arms race with itself

Posted: 28 Sep 2014 12:47 PM PDT

An evolutionary arms race between rival elements within the genomes of primates drove the evolution of complex regulatory networks that orchestrate the activity of genes in every cell of our bodies, researach shows. The arms race is between mobile DNA sequences known as 'retrotransposons' (a.k.a. 'jumping genes') and the genes that have evolved to control them.

Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer identified by researchers

Posted: 28 Sep 2014 12:47 PM PDT

A sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer –- an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs before the disease is diagnosed and symptoms appear -- has been identified by a team of researchers. Although the increase isn't large enough to be the basis of a new test for early detection of the disease, the findings will help researchers better understand how pancreatic cancer affects the rest of the body.

Adding cediranib to chemotherapy improves progression-free survival for metastatic or recurrent cervical cancer, phase II trial shows

Posted: 28 Sep 2014 09:56 AM PDT

For patients with cervical cancer that has recurred after treatment or has spread elsewhere in the body, adding the experimental drug cediranib to standard chemotherapy improves tumor shrinkage and adds a modest improvement in progression-free survival, researchers report.

Pertuzumab adds 16 months survival benefit to trastuzumab and chemotherapy treatment for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer

Posted: 28 Sep 2014 09:56 AM PDT

Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer that has spread to other parts of their body live around 16 months longer if treated with a combination of pertuzumab, trastuzumab and chemotherapy compared to those treated with trastuzumab and chemotherapy alone, updated results from the CLEOPATRA study reveal.

Crizotinib treatment effective against ROS1-positive lung cancer, study suggests

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:59 AM PDT

Treatment with the targeted therapy drug crizotinib effectively halted the growth of lung tumors driven by rearrangements of the ROS1 gene in a small clinical trial.

French studies measure benefits of colorectal cancer screening

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:59 AM PDT

The introduction of biennial colorectal cancer screening in a region of France increased the rate of diagnosis of high risk pre-cancerous adenomas (sometimes called polyps) by 89%, researchers have reported.

Customizing chemotherapy in lung cancer: New phase II data reported

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:59 AM PDT

Measuring the expression levels of an enzyme involved in DNA synthesis can help predict the response of lung cancers to certain treatments, a Korean study has shown. In a randomized phase II study, researchers showed that patients whose lung cancers expressed low levels of an enzyme called thymidylate synthase experienced a greater benefit from treatment with the combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin than those whose tumors expressed high levels.

Chemotherapy: Rolapitant reduces nausea and vomiting in phase III trial

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:58 AM PDT

Rolapitant reduces nausea and vomiting in patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy, according to the results of a phase III trial.

Second-line afatinib significantly improves progression-free survival in recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer, phase III trial shows

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:58 AM PDT

The tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib significantly improved progression-free survival compared to methotrexate in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy, the results of a phase III trial show.

Anamorelin shown to improve appetite and body mass in patients with cancer anorexia-cachexia

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:58 AM PDT

A new drug, anamorelin, improves appetite and body mass in patients with advanced lung cancer who are suffering cancer anorexia and cachexia, according to phase III data.

Cancer during pregnancy: chemotherapy and radiotherapy are safe for babies, studies suggest

Posted: 27 Sep 2014 11:58 AM PDT

Children who are exposed to chemotherapy or radiotherapy while in the womb suffer no negative impacts on mental or cardiac development, international studies have shown. "When chemotherapy is administered after the first trimester of pregnancy, we cannot discern any problems in the children," says lead author of a study on the topic.

Children with autism more sedentary than their peers, study shows

Posted: 26 Sep 2014 11:10 AM PDT

Children with autism are more sedentary than their typically-developing peers, a study shows, averaging 50 minutes less a day of moderate physical activity and 70 minutes more each day sitting.

Glaucoma drug, weight loss combo tested to restore vision

Posted: 26 Sep 2014 08:20 AM PDT

A blinding disorder, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), affects overweight young women. It is a condition, of unknown origin, causing raised intracranial pressure primarily in obese women. Those with IIH suffer debilitating headaches, and, because of pressure on the optic nerves, 86 percent develop some degree of vision loss. New research is aiming to bring relief to these patients.

Not all Hispanics are the same when it comes to drinking

Posted: 25 Sep 2014 03:27 PM PDT

Hispanics are often grouped into a single category when it comes to alcohol use. Yet a new study indicates that the risk of alcohol abuse and dependence can vary significantly among different subgroups within the population.

Viral infection in transplant recipients increases risk of developing damaging antibodies

Posted: 25 Sep 2014 03:27 PM PDT

Among kidney transplant recipients, persistent infection with BK virus does not have a negative immediate-term impact on patient or kidney survival, but infected patients are more likely to develop antibodies against their kidney transplants. Such donor-specific antibodies are known to be detrimental to the survival of transplanted organs.

Widespread vitamin D deficiency in thyroidectomy patients, study shows

Posted: 25 Sep 2014 03:26 PM PDT

Widespread vitamin D deficiency has been found among patients who undergo a thyroidectomy, potentially putting them at greater risk for developing dangerously low blood calcium levels after surgery. Those more likely to be vitamin D deficient are individuals older than age 50, African Americans, Hispanics and patients undergoing surgery for hyperthyroidism.

Genetic 'instruction set' for antibodies knocks down hepatitis C in mice

Posted: 25 Sep 2014 12:08 PM PDT

A triple-punch of antibodies both prevented hepatitis C infection and wiped out the disease after it had established itself in laboratory mice, a study has found. Instead of delivering the antibodies directly, the researchers administered a genetic 'instruction set' that, once in a cell, developed into antibodies that target the portions of the virus that do not mutate.

Only half of U.S. adults over 45 are screened for diabetes

Posted: 25 Sep 2014 12:06 PM PDT

Only half of adults in the U.S. were screened for diabetes within the last three years, less than what is recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), a new cross-sectional study has found.

The dangers of teens using weed

Posted: 25 Sep 2014 12:06 PM PDT

Whether states should legalize marijuana for recreational and medical use is a hot topic across the country. As the debates continue a potentially dangerous environment is being created where more preteens, teens and young adults are beginning to use the substance with the feeling that it is safe.

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