Referral Banners

Wednesday, January 7, 2015

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

ScienceDaily: Top Health News

Safety concerns over lack of support for Prison Officers' mental health

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:30 PM PST

People working in prisons and in secure hospitals in the UK are at considerable risk of work-related stress, exhaustion and depression. This raises serious concerns for safety, researchers suggest.

Children's vulnerability reflected in genes: Some children more sensitive to their environments, for better and worse

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:30 PM PST

Some children are more sensitive to their environments, for better and for worse. Now researchers have identified a gene variant that may serve as a marker for these children, who are among society's most vulnerable. The study found that children from high-risk backgrounds who carried a common gene variant were very likely to develop serious problems as adults, but were also more responsive to treatment.

More than a third of people with abnormal results drop out of bowel cancer screening

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:30 PM PST

Almost 40 percent of people who have abnormal results from bowel cancer screening tests and are referred for further investigation ignore their next screening invitation two years later, a study in the UK shows.

Women in prison need and want treatment for physical, sexual abuse

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:30 PM PST

Women in prison want and need specific treatment for traumas such as physical and sexual abuse, a new research paper says. The need is especially great for aboriginal woman who are "grossly over-represented" in the prison population, said a Canadian researcher.

Corporate philanthropy increases workers' productivity

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:30 PM PST

Working to benefit a good cause increases productivity by up to 30 percent, according to the findings of a new study. When workers are given a social incentive such as a charitable donation linked to their job, performance increases by an average of 13 per cent, rising to 30 per cent amongst those who are initially the least productive, the researchers say.

Blood sugar levels in heart failure patients predict risk of early death

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:29 PM PST

People who arrive at hospital emergency departments with acute heart failure should have their blood sugar levels checked on arrival, new research suggests. This simple and inexpensive measure could identify patients at high risk of early death, further hospitalizations, or the development of more health problems, such as diabetes.

Drug overdose epidemic to recede soon, experts say

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 01:19 PM PST

The drug overdose epidemic will peak at about 50,000 annual deaths in 2017 before declining to a non-epidemic state of approximately 6,000 deaths in the year 2035 -- at roughly the same rate seen before the start of the epidemic, researchers predict.

Circadian rhythms regulate skin stem cell metabolism and expansion, study finds

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 12:46 PM PST

Scientists studying the role of circadian rhythms in skin stem cells found that this clock plays a key role in coordinating daily metabolic cycles and cell division. Their research shows for the first time how the body's intrinsic day-night cycles protect and nurture stem cell differentiation.

Nearly one in five women who undergo hysterectomy may not need the procedure

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 11:49 AM PST

Alternatives to hysterectomy are being underused and that treatment guidelines are often not followed, experts say. They add that up to 20% of women who get hysterectomies may not actually need the procedure.

RSV infection may be associated with higher risk for bacterial pneumonia

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 11:48 AM PST

Two common and sometimes dangerous respiratory diseases, a viral one caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and a bacterial one caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae may be linked, suggests a new study. Scientists analyzed hospitalization data to investigate a possible association between RSV and pneumonia in young children, and found that infection with RSV may increase the risk of pneumonia.

Researchers uncover key cancer-promoting gene

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 11:08 AM PST

One of the mysteries in cancer biology is how one protein, TGF-beta, can both stop cancer from forming and encourage its aggressive growth. Now, researchers have uncovered a key gene that may explain this paradox and provide a potential target for treatment.

Computer model explains how animals select actions with rewarding outcomes

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 11:07 AM PST

A computer model charting what happens in the brain when an action is chosen that leads to a reward has been developed by researchers. The model could provide new insights into the mechanisms behind motor disorders such as Parkinson's Disease. It may also shed light on conditions involving abnormal learning, such as addiction.

Novel imaging technique improves prostate cancer detection

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 10:46 AM PST

In 2014, prostate cancer was the leading cause of newly diagnosed cancers in men and the second leading cause of cancer death in men. A team of scientists and physicians now describe a novel imaging technique that measurably improves upon current prostate imaging -- and may have significant implications for how patients with prostate cancer are ultimately treated.

Study quantifies effect of depressive thoughts on memory

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 10:05 AM PST

For people with depressed mood, memory and concentration difficulties are often a day-to-day reality. While those with the disorder report that these cognitive problems are some of the most deeply troubling, previous studies have been unable to observe this phenomenon in a laboratory setting. In a new study, researchers are the first to substantiate these memory deficits.

Potential option for treating chronic kidney disease

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 10:05 AM PST

New clinical research indicates the drug tetrahydrobiopterin may be able to dial back over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system in chronic kidney disease. New clinical research indicates the drug tetrahydrobiopterin may be able to dial back this overactivation, leading to positive effects on the sympathetic nervous system and some measures of arterial stiffness.

Drug stimulates brown fat, boosts metabolism

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 10:05 AM PST

A drug FDA-approved to treat overactive bladder may boost brown fat's metabolic powers, making it a promising candidate for combatting obesity, new research indicates. Unlike energy-storing white fat, brown fat burns energy to generate heat, which can help maintain body weight and prevent obesity in rodents.

Surgery for obesity linked to longer survival

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 09:22 AM PST

Obese people seem likely to live longer if they have bariatric surgery (for obesity) than if they don't -- with 53 percent lower risk of dying from any cause at five to 14 years after the procedure. So concluded a study involving 2,500 obese patients and nearly 7,500 matched controls.

Study rules out spiders as common cause of bacterial infections in humans

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 09:14 AM PST

Can spiders be carriers of human pathogens? Can they provoke infection through a break in the skin? A team of scientists has data-mined the history of publications on spider envenomations to conclude that the evidence for spider-vectored infection is scanty. Although spider bite may be an attractive and tenable causative agent of a bacterial infection, the data show this is highly improbable, says the study's lead author.

Study finds low rate of complications with assisted reproductive technology procedures

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 09:14 AM PST

In the United States from 2000-2011, autologous -- woman uses her own egg -- and donor assisted reproductive technology procedures were associated with low complication risks, according to a study.

HPV vaccination not associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 09:14 AM PST

Although some reports have suggested a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and development of multiple sclerosis or other demyelinating diseases -- a group of central nervous system disorders -- a follow-up of girls and women in Denmark and Sweden who received this vaccination found no increased risk for these disorders, according to a study.

Study finds substantially shorter life expectancy for patients with type 1 diabetes

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 09:14 AM PST

For patients with type 1 diabetes in Scotland, at age 20 years, the average man has an estimated life expectancy loss of about 11 years; for women, it is 13 years, compared with the general Scottish population without type 1 diabetes, according to a study.

Intensive treatment for type 1 diabetes associated with decreased risk of death

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 09:14 AM PST

After an average of 27 years' follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes, six and one-half years of initial intensive diabetes therapy was associated with a modestly lower all-cause rate of death, compared with conventional therapy, according to a study.

Positive personality traits may protect police at high risk for PTSD

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 07:41 AM PST

A new study looked at police officers in the New Orleans area during and after Hurricane Katrina. The results suggested that they were shielded from PTSD by the protective qualities not only in the immediate aftermath of the hurricane, but years later as well.

The Berlin patient, first and only person 'cured' of HIV, speaks out

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 07:39 AM PST

Timothy Ray Brown, long known only as the "Berlin Patient" had HIV for 12 years before he became the first person in the world to be cured of the infection following a stem cell transplant in 2007. He recalls his many years of illness, a series of difficult decisions, and his long road to recovery in a new first-person account.

Pharmaceuticals, personal care products could taint swimming pools

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 07:27 AM PST

A new study suggests pharmaceuticals and chemicals from personal care products end up in swimming pools, possibly interacting with chlorine to produce disinfection byproducts with unknown properties and health effects. Researchers detected DEET, the active ingredient in insect repellants; caffeine; and tri(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), a flame retardant in some swimming pools. Some chemicals are volatile, which means they can escape into the air to be inhaled. Others can be ingested or absorbed through the skin.

Extreme obesity calls for individualized medication

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:52 AM PST

Doctors and pharmacists often do not take obesity into account when prescribing medication. For this, more insight into the influence of obesity on the distribution and elimination of drugs is of the utmost importance, experts say.

12-year study confirms overall safety of measles vaccines

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:52 AM PST

A 12-year study of two measles-containing vaccines found that seven main adverse outcomes were unlikely after either vaccine. "This level of safety monitoring for vaccines can give the public confidence that vaccine surveillance is ongoing and that if a safety problem existed, it would be detected," said the first author of the study.

Unveiling how the children's tummy bug, rotavirus, causes infection

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:51 AM PST

Researchers have significantly advanced understanding of a virus that kills up to half a million children each year. Rotaviruses are considered the most important cause of severe diarrhea in children, with all being infected by the time they reach the age of five.

Researchers map direct gut-brain connection

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:51 AM PST

Scientists have mapped a cell-to-cell connection between the gut and the nervous system that may be a more direct route to signaling satiety than the release of hormones in the blood. The new system may change researchers' understanding of how we sense being full, and how that sensation might be affected by gastric bypass surgery.

When DNA gets sent to time-out: New details revealed in the coordinated regulation of large stretches of DNA

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:50 AM PST

For a skin cell to do its job, it must turn on a completely different set of genes than a liver cell -- and keep genes it doesn't need switched off. One way of turning off large groups of genes at once is to send them to 'time-out' at the edge of the nucleus. New research shows how DNA gets sent to the nucleus' far edge, a process critical to controlling genes and determining cell fate.

International research effort gives neuroscientists better feeling about sense of touch

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:50 AM PST

Our sense of touch is one we often take for granted, until our leg falls asleep and we aren't able to stand, or when we experience acute pain. The sense of touch also has been taken for granted in neuroscience, where it's the sense scientists know the least about. For the first time, researchers have linked a group of neurons to a specific type of somatosensation, a finding that can open the door for a heightened understanding about our sense of touch.

Pneumonia risk far higher for HIV-positive children, study shows

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:50 AM PST

HIV-positive children in developing countries are six times more likely to die from pneumonia than children without the virus, research suggests. The first global study into pneumonia deaths in children with HIV has found that, in one year, pneumonia affected 1.4 million children and led to a further 88,000 deaths.

'Flying carpet' technique uses graphene to deliver one-two punch of anticancer drugs

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:17 AM PST

A drug delivery technique has been developed by an international team of scientists that utilizes graphene strips as "flying carpets" to deliver two anticancer drugs sequentially to cancer cells, with each drug targeting the distinct part of the cell where it will be most effective.

New drug design enhances brain signaling by a factor of 1,000

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 06:17 AM PST

Chemical-biological research sheds light on important communication processes in the brain by means of new effective molecules that improve the starting point provided by nature by more than 1,000 times. In the long term, this new knowledge may lead to psychopharmacological drugs with fewer side effects, researchers say.

Blind students learn to think like scientists with revolutionary traveling toolboxes

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:16 AM PST

Hands-on, innovative educational material is being developed to help blind students learn about evolution.

Small change in blood acidity could prove detrimental to kidney disease patients

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:15 AM PST

Very small changes in the level of acidity in blood may have a detrimental impact on the health of patients with kidney disease, a scientist has discovered. The research focussed on the high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease. This causes the body to release calcium and phosphate from the bones which can then damage their blood vessels.

Major depression in the national comorbidity survey

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:15 AM PST

A recent study underscores the important public health significance of depression among U.S. adolescents. Mental disorders are the leading cause of years lived with disability worldwide with 40.5% of this burden attributable to major depression. In adolescence, rates of depression increase substantially between 13 and 18 years of age, and the estimated cumulative incidence in this population approximates the adult lifetime prevalence rate, experts report.

New study challenges link between HLA class I hyperexpression in pancreas, type 1 diabetes

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:15 AM PST

The cause of type 1 diabetes remains unknown. Several studies using immunohistochemistry (IHC) have independently reported hyperexpression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I on pancreatic islet cells in young patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Investigators have therefore suggested that HLA hyperexpression may be an important first step in the development of type 1 diabetes. However, a new study challenges these findings .

Men's diets are related to local offerings, unlike women's

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:12 AM PST

Canadian men's eating habits are associated with the availability of healthy food sources in their residential neighborhood but women's are not, according to researchers. Why men and not women? "This may be because women, who are in general more nutritionally knowledgeable, may engage in different food shopping strategies than men, and rely on other aspects of the food environment than the proportion of food stores locally available," suggested the study's leader.

Exercise allows you to age optimally

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:12 AM PST

Staying active allows you to age optimally, according to a study. The study of amateur older cyclists found that many had levels of physiological function that would place them at a much younger age compared to the general population; debunking the common assumption that aging automatically makes you more frail.

Despite resolutions, people buy more food after new year

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:12 AM PST

Despite resolutions to eat better, people buy the greatest amount of food after New Year. Shoppers continue buying elevated holiday-levels of junk food, and then start adding healthier items on top. As a result, people take home 9 percent more calories after New Year than they do over the heavy-eating holidays.

Bipolar disorder: New MRI imaging provides new picture, new insight

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:12 AM PST

Using a different type of MRI imaging, researchers have discovered previously unrecognized differences in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder. In particular, the study revealed differences in the white matter of patients' brains and in the cerebellum, an area of the brain not previously linked with the disorder.

Poor vitamin D status linked to longer respiratory support in ICU patients, study finds

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:12 AM PST

Vitamin D status may influence the duration of respiratory support needed for surgical intensive care patients, according to a new cohort study. The study demonstrated that plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels on admission to the surgical ICU were inversely associated with the need for mechanical ventilation in critically ill surgical patients.

Ischemic micro-lesions associated with flow-diverting stents for aneurysms

Posted: 06 Jan 2015 05:12 AM PST

The use of flow-diverting stents to treat intracranial aneurysms appears safe and highly successful. Ischemic complications occur in brain territories supplied by the parent artery in which the stent is placed and in brain regions fed by small arterial branches whose ostia are covered by the stent. Most of these complications are asymptomatic.

First clinical trial in U. S. of procedure to relieve pain from cancer that has spread to spine

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 02:02 PM PST

The first clinical trial in the United States of a minimally invasive treatment designed to help relieve pain, heal spinal fractures and prevent new fractures in patients with metastatic cancer that has spread to the spine is being launched.

Exploring the significance of 'sacred moments' in therapy

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 02:02 PM PST

"My client said I was different than all other therapists in the sense that I was genuinely caring about him and paying attention to what he was saying and also to what he was not saying. It was like time had stopped and we were two vulnerable human beings connected at a very deep level--a 'sacred' moment." New new research shows that these kinds of "sacred moments" between therapists and their clients lead to improved well- being for both sides, demonstrating the value of paying close attention to the spiritual dimension between providers and their patients. New research shows that these kinds of "sacred moments" between therapists and their clients lead to improved well- being for both sides, demonstrating the value of paying close attention to the spiritual dimension between providers and their patients.

Radiation plus hormone therapy prolongs survival for older men with prostate cancer

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 02:02 PM PST

Adding radiation treatment to hormone therapy saves more lives among older men with locally advanced prostate therapy than hormone therapy alone, according to a new study. The researchers found that hormone therapy plus radiation reduced cancer deaths by nearly 50 percent in men aged 76 to 85 compared to men who only received hormone therapy.

Nutrition education may help prevent breast cancer reoccurrence

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 02:00 PM PST

Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death among women worldwide, and five-year survival rates are just 58.4% in Brazil, lower than in many other regions. In a new study, however, researchers provided Brazilian breast cancer patients with nutrition education and found it could benefit patients and may help prevent reoccurrence of the cancer.

Skin microbes trigger specific immune responses

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 02:00 PM PST

The immune system in the skin develops distinct responses to the various microbes that naturally colonize the skin, referred to as commensals, new research in mice shows. A research team found that each type of microbe triggers unique aspects of the immune system, suggesting that immune cells found in the skin can rapidly sense and respond to changes in microbial communities.

New information about how enzymes from white blood cells function

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 12:10 PM PST

One of these enzymes from white blood cells, known as MMP12, does not remain outside of cells while it fights infections, but rather it can travel all the way to the center of cells. Understanding how this and other enzymes function is an important step to creating treatments for inflammatory diseases.

Mom's exercise habits good for blood pressure in kids

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 12:10 PM PST

It's been well established among doctors and researchers alike, that babies with lower birth weight have a greater risk of having high blood pressure later in life. However, a new study is the first to suggest that the exercise habits of expecting moms can actually reverse this long-standing belief.

Alcohol taxes protective against binge drinking, study shows

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 11:17 AM PST

Higher alcohol taxes strongly protect against binge drinking, according to a new study. "This is really significant for public health," said the study's lead author, explaining that binge drinking causes more than half of nearly 90,000 alcohol-attributable deaths in the U.S. each year, and accounts for three-quarters of the $224 billion in annual economic costs.

Imaging linking cell activity, behavior shows what it means for mice to have sex in mind

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 11:17 AM PST

An automated method (much more sensitive than fMRI) to detect the activity of neurons during specific behaviors, at the resolution of individual brain cells throughout the entire mouse brain, has been successfully demonstrated. A team shows brain activation patterns when male mice perform two critical tasks: recognizing other individuals and determining the sex of another individual.

Vitamin B may counter negative effect of pesticide on fertility

Posted: 05 Jan 2015 11:17 AM PST

Women who have adequate levels of B vitamins in their bodies are more likely to get and stay pregnant even when they also have high levels of a common pesticide known to have detrimental reproductive effects, according to new research.

No comments: