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Thursday, November 13, 2014

ScienceDaily: Top News

ScienceDaily: Top News

Twisted light waves sent across Vienna

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 04:22 PM PST

A group of researchers from Austria have sent twisted beams of light across the rooftops of Vienna. It is the first time that twisted light has been transmitted over a large distance outdoors, and could enable researchers to take advantage of the significant data-carrying capacity of light in both classical and quantum communications.

Piecing together signaling pathway leading to obesity

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 11:22 AM PST

A team of researchers has now drawn connections between known regulators of body mass, pointing to possible treatments for obesity and metabolic disorders. As scientists probe the molecular underpinnings of why some people are prone to obesity and some to leanness, they are discovering that weight maintenance is more complicated than the old "calories in, calories out" adage.

Key protein can reduce severity of disease equivalent to multiple sclerosis in mice

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 11:22 AM PST

Researchers have identified a key protein that is able to reduce the severity of a disease equivalent to multiple sclerosis in mice. This molecule, Del-1, is the same regulatory protein that has been found to prevent inflammation and bone loss in a mouse model of gum disease.

First analysis of new human glucose disorder revealed

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 10:36 AM PST

Glycogen storage disorders are metabolic conditions that manifest in the first years of life. This inability to process and store glucose can be difficult to diagnose. Now, researchers who have studied enzymes involved in metabolism of bacteria have cataloged the effects of abnormal enzymes responsible for one type of this disorder in humans. Their work could help with patient prognosis and in developing therapeutic options for this glycogen storage disease.

Farmers, scientists divided over climate change

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 10:36 AM PST

Crop producers and scientists hold deeply different views on climate change and its possible causes, a study shows. Researchers surveyed 6,795 people in the agricultural sector in 2011-2012 to determine their beliefs about climate change and whether variation in the climate is triggered by human activities, natural causes or an equal combination of both.

Microtubes create cozy space for neurons to grow, and grow fast

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 10:36 AM PST

Tiny, thin microtubes could provide a scaffold for neuron cultures to grow so that researchers can study neural networks, their growth and repair, yielding insights into treatment for degenerative neurological conditions or restoring nerve connections after injury, scientists report.

Study identifying cell of origin for large, disfiguring nerve tumors lays groundwork for development of new therapies

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 10:34 AM PST

Researchers have determined the specific type of cell that gives rise to large, disfiguring tumors called plexiform neurofibromas, a finding that could lead to new therapies for preventing growth of these tumors.

Some plants regenerate by duplicating their DNA

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 09:40 AM PST

When munched by grazing animals -- or mauled by scientists in the lab -- some herbaceous plants overcompensate, producing more plant matter and becoming more fertile than they otherwise would. Scientists say they now know how these plants accomplish this feat of regeneration.

Why 'I'm so happy I could cry' makes sense

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 09:40 AM PST

The phrase 'tears of joy' never made much sense to one American psychologist. But after conducting a series of studies of such seemingly incongruous expressions, she now understands better why people cry when they are happy.

East coast, U.S. hurricanes can flood the Midwest

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 09:37 AM PST

Located hundreds of miles inland from the nearest ocean, the Midwest is unaffected by North Atlantic hurricanes. Or is it? Scientists have found that North Atlantic tropical cyclones in fact have a significant effect on the Midwest.

Tracing the course of phosphorus pollution in Lake Pepin

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 09:37 AM PST

In recent years, many lakes in the upper Midwest have been experiencing unprecedented algae blooms. These blooms threaten fish and affect recreational activities. A key culprit implicated in overgrowth of algae in lakes is phosphorus (P). Lake Pepin, located on the Minnesota/Wisconsin border, has seen increasing phosphorus concentrations over time. Researchers are now trying to identify upstream factors that could explain this increase.

Mothers, babies benefit from skin-to-skin contact

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 08:17 AM PST

Research during the past 30 years has found many benefits of skin-to-skin contact between mothers and newborns immediately after birth, particularly with aiding breastfeeding. However, in some hospitals, skin-to-skin contact following cesarean birth is not implemented, due to practices around the surgery. A recent quality improvement project demonstrated that women's birth experiences were improved by implementing skin-to-skin contact after cesarean surgery.

Altered milk protein can deliver aids drug to infants

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 08:16 AM PST

A novel method of altering a protein in milk to bind with an antiretroviral drug promises to greatly improve treatment for infants and young children suffering from HIV/AIDS, according to a researcher.

Enriched environments hold promise for brain injury patients

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 08:16 AM PST

A violent blow to the head has the potential to cause mild to severe traumatic brain injury -- physical damage to the brain that can be debilitating, even fatal. But to date, there is no effective medical or cognitive treatment for patients with traumatic brain injuries. Now a new study points to an 'enriched environment' -- specially enhanced surroundings -- as a promising path for the rehabilitation of mild traumatic brain injury patients.

Tail discovered on long-known asteroid

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 08:13 AM PST

Astronomers have discovered a new active asteroid, called 62412, in the Solar System's main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is the first comet-like object seen in the Hygiea family of asteroids.

Eye diseases identified by how we watch TV

Posted: 11 Nov 2014 08:13 AM PST

One of the leading causes of blindness worldwide could be detected by how our eyes respond to watching TV according to a new study. With millions of people living with undiagnosed glaucoma, the research could help speed up diagnosis, enabling clinicians to identify the disease earlier and allowing treatment to begin before the onset of permanent damage.

Overall risk of birth defects appears low for women taking antiretrovirals during early pregnancy

Posted: 10 Nov 2014 06:10 PM PST

Among pregnant women infected with HIV, the use of antiretroviral medications early in pregnancy to treat their HIV or to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV does not appear to increase the risk of birth defects in their infants, according to a new study.

Bending but not breaking: In search of new materials

Posted: 10 Nov 2014 01:10 PM PST

Researchers have chemically engineered a new, electrically conductive nanomaterial that is flexible enough to fold, but strong enough to support many times its own weight. They believe it can be used to improve electrical energy storage, water filtration and radiofrequency shielding in technology from portable electronics to coaxial cables.

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